Sec. 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and
(a) A seat (or berth for a nonambulant
person) must be provided for each occupant who has reached his or her
(b) Each seat, berth, safety belt,
harness, and adjacent part of the airplane at each station designated as
occupiable during takeoff and landing must be designed so that a person
making proper use of these facilities will not suffer serious injury in an
emergency landing as a result of the inertia forces specified in §§25.561
(c) Each seat or berth must be approved.
(d) Each occupant of a seat that makes
more than an 18-degree angle with the vertical plane containing the
airplane centerline must be protected from head injury by a safety belt
and an energy absorbing rest that will support the arms, shoulders, head,
and spine, or by a safety belt and shoulder harness that will prevent the
head from contacting any injurious object. Each occupant of any other seat
must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and, as appropriate to
the type, location, and angle of facing of each seat, by one or more of
(1) A shoulder harness that will prevent
the head from contacting any injurious object.
(2) The elimination of any injurious
object within striking radius of the head.
(3) An energy absorbing rest that will
support the arms, shoulders, head, and spine.
(e) Each berth must be designed so that
the forward part has a padded end board, canvas diaphragm, or equivalent
means, that can withstand the static load reaction of the occupant when
subjected to the forward inertia force specified in §25.561. Berths must
be free from corners and protuberances likely to cause injury to a person
occupying the berth during emergency conditions.
(f) Each seat or berth, and its
supporting structure, and each safety belt or harness and its anchorage
must be designed for an occupant weight of 170 pounds, considering the
maximum load factors, inertia forces, and reactions among the occupant,
seat, safety belt, and harness for each relevant flight and ground load
condition (including the emergency landing conditions prescribed in
§25.561). In addition --
(1) The structural analysis and testing
of the seats, berths, and their supporting structures may be determined by
assuming that the critical load in the forward, sideward, downward,
upward, and rearward directions (as determined from the prescribed flight,
ground, and emergency landing conditions) acts separately or using
selected combinations of loads if the required strength in each specified
direction is substantiated. The forward load factor need not be applied to
safety belts for berths.
(2) Each pilot seat must be designed for
the reactions resulting from the application of the pilot forces
prescribed in §25.395.
(3) The inertia forces specified in
§25.561 must be multiplied by a factor of 1.33 (instead of the fitting
factor prescribed in §25.625) in determining the strength of the
attachment of each seat to the structure and each belt or harness to the
seat or structure.
(g) Each seat at a flight deck station
must have a restraint system consisting of a combined safety belt and
shoulder harness with a single-point release that permits the flight deck
occupant, when seated with the restraint system fastened, to perform all
of the occupant's necessary flight deck functions. There must be a means
to secure each combined restraint system when not in use to prevent
interference with the operation of the airplane and with rapid egress in
(h) Each seat located in the passenger
compartment and designated for use during takeoff and landing by a flight
attendant required by the operating rules of this chapter must be:
(1) Near a required floor level
emergency exit, except that another location is acceptable if the
emergency egress of passengers would be enhanced with that location. A
flight attendant seat must be located adjacent to each Type A or B
emergency exit. Other flight attendant seats must be evenly distributed
among the required floor- level emergency exits to the extent feasible.
(2) To the extent possible, without
compromising proximity to a required floor level emergency exit, located
to provide a direct view of the cabin area for which the flight attendant
(3) Positioned so that the seat will not
interfere with the use of a passageway or exit when the seat is not in
(4) Located to minimize the probability
that occupants would suffer injury by being struck by items dislodged from
service areas, stowage compartments, or service equipment.
(5) Either forward or rearward facing
with an energy absorbing rest that is designed to support the arms,
shoulders, head, and spine.
(6) Equipped with a restraint system
consisting of a combined safety belt and shoulder harness unit with a
single point release. There must be means to secure each restraint system
when not in use to prevent interference with rapid egress in an emergency.
(i) Each safety belt must be equipped
with a metal to metal latching device.
(j) If the seat backs do not provide a
firm handhold, there must be a handgrip or rail along each aisle to enable
persons to steady themselves while using the aisles in moderately rough
(k) Each projecting object that would
injure persons seated or moving about the airplane in normal flight must
(l) Each forward observer's seat
required by the operating rules must be shown to be suitable for use in
conducting the necessary enroute inspection.
[Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29780, July 20, 1990, as
amended by Amdt. 25-88, 61 FR 57956, Nov. 8, 1996]