Sec. 25.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

The following are required powerplant instruments:

(a) For all airplanes. (1) A fuel pressure warning means for each engine, or a master warning means for all engines with provision for isolating the individual warning means from the master warning means.

(2) A fuel quantity indicator for each fuel tank.

(3) An oil quantity indicator for each oil tank.

(4) An oil pressure indicator for each independent pressure oil system of each engine.

(5) An oil pressure warning means for each engine, or a master warning means for all engines with provision for isolating the individual warning means from the master warning means.

(6) An oil temperature indicator for each engine.

(7) Fire-warning indicators.

(8) An augmentation liquid quantity indicator (appropriate for the manner in which the liquid is to be used in operation) for each tank.

(b) For reciprocating engine-powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraph (a) of this section, the following powerplant instruments are required:

(1) A carburetor air temperature indicator for each engine.

(2) A cylinder head temperature indicator for each air-cooled engine.

(3) A manifold pressure indicator for each engine.

(4) A fuel pressure indicator (to indicate the pressure at which the fuel is supplied) for each engine.

(5) A fuel flowmeter, or fuel mixture indicator, for each engine without an automatic altitude mixture control.

(6) A tachometer for each engine.

(7) A device that indicates, to the flight crew (during flight), any change in the power output, for each engine with --

(i) An automatic propeller feathering system, whose operation is initiated by a power output measuring system; or

(ii) A total engine piston displacement of 2,000 cubic inches or more.

(8) A means to indicate to the pilot when the propeller is in reverse pitch, for each reversing propeller.

(c) For turbine engine-powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraph (a) of this section, the following powerplant instruments are required:

(1) A gas temperature indicator for each engine.

(2) A fuel flowmeter indicator for each engine.

(3) A tachometer (to indicate the speed of the rotors with established limiting speeds) for each engine.

(4) A means to indicate, to the flight crew, the operation of each engine starter that can be operated continuously but that is neither designed for continuous operation nor designed to prevent hazard if it failed.

(5) An indicator to indicate the functioning of the powerplant ice protection system for each engine.

(6) An indicator for the fuel strainer or filter required by 25.997 to indicate the occurrence of contamination of the strainer or filter before it reaches the capacity established in accordance with 25.997(d).

(7) A warning means for the oil strainer or filter required by 25.1019, if it has no bypass, to warn the pilot of the occurrence of contamination of the strainer or filter screen before it reaches the capacity established in accordance with 25.1019(a)(2).

(8) An indicator to indicate the proper functioning of any heater used to prevent ice clogging of fuel system components.

(d) For turbojet engine powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraphs (a) and (c) of this section, the following powerplant instruments are required:

(1) An indicator to indicate thrust, or a parameter that is directly related to thrust, to the pilot. The indication must be based on the direct measurement of thrust or of parameters that are directly related to thrust. The indicator must indicate a change in thrust resulting from any engine malfunction, damage, or deterioration.

(2) A position indicating means to indicate to the flight crew when the thrust reversing device is in the reverse thrust position, for each engine using a thrust reversing device.

(3) An indicator to indicate rotor system unbalance.

(e) For turbopropeller-powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraphs (a) and (c) of this section, the following powerplant instruments are required:

(1) A torque indicator for each engine.

(2) Position indicating means to indicate to the flight crew when the propeller blade angle is below the flight low pitch position, for each propeller.

(f) For airplanes equipped with fluid systems (other than fuel) for thrust or power augmentation, an approved means must be provided to indicate the proper functioning of that system to the flight crew.

[Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 25-35, 39 FR 1831, Jan. 15, 1974; Amdt. 25-36, 39 FR 35461, Oct. 1, 1974; Amdt. 25-38, 41 FR 55467, Dec. 20, 1976; Amdt. 25-54, 45 FR 60173, Sept. 11, 1980; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]