Sec. 25.1323 - Airspeed indicating system.

For each airspeed indicating system, the following apply:

(a) Each airspeed indicating instrument must be approved and must be calibrated to indicate true airspeed (at sea level with a standard atmosphere) with a minimum practicable instrument calibration error when the corresponding pitot and static pressures are applied.

(b) Each system must be calibrated to determine the system error (that is, the relation between IAS and CAS) in flight and during the accelerated takeoff ground run. The ground run calibration must be determined --

(1) From 0.8 of the minimum value of V1 to the maximum value of V2, considering the approved ranges of altitude and weight; and

(2) With the flaps and power settings corresponding to the values determined in the establishment of the takeoff path under 25.111 assuming that the critical engine fails at the minimum value of V1.

(c) The airspeed error of the installation, excluding the airspeed indicator instrument calibration error, may not exceed three percent or five knots, whichever is greater, throughout the speed range, from --

(1) VMO to 1.23 VSR1, with flaps retracted; and

(2) 1.23 VSR0 to VFE with flaps in the landing position.

(d) Each system must be arranged, so far as practicable, to prevent malfunction or serious error due to the entry of moisture, dirt, or other substances.

(e) Each system must have a heated pitot tube or an equivalent means of preventing malfunction due to icing.

(f) Where duplicate airspeed indicators are required, their respective pitot tubes must be far enough apart to avoid damage to both tubes in a collision with a bird.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-57, 49 FR 6849, Feb. 23, 1984]