Sec. 25.1351 - General.

(a) Electrical system capacity. The required generating capacity, and number and kinds of power sources must --

(1) Be determined by an electrical load analysis; and

(2) Meet the requirements of 25.1309.

(b) Generating system. The generating system includes electrical power sources, main power busses, transmission cables, and associated control, regulation, and protective devices. It must be designed so that --

(1) Power sources function properly when independent and when connected in combination;

(2) No failure or malfunction of any power source can create a hazard or impair the ability of remaining sources to supply essential loads;

(3) The system voltage and frequency (as applicable) at the terminals of all essential load equipment can be maintained within the limits for which the equipment is designed, during any probable operating condition; and

(4) System transients due to switching, fault clearing, or other causes do not make essential loads inoperative, and do not cause a smoke or fire hazard.

(5) There are means accessible, in flight, to appropriate crewmembers for the individual and collective disconnection of the electrical power sources from the system.

(6) There are means to indicate to appropriate crewmembers the generating system quantities essential for the safe operation of the system, such as the voltage and current supplied by each generator.

(c) External power. If provisions are made for connecting external power to the airplane, and that external power can be electrically connected to equipment other than that used for engine starting, means must be provided to ensure that no external power supply having a reverse polarity, or a reverse phase sequence, can supply power to the airplane's electrical system.

(d) Operation without normal electrical power. It must be shown by analysis, tests, or both, that the airplane can be operated safely in VFR conditions, for a period of not less than five minutes, with the normal electrical power (electrical power sources excluding the battery) inoperative, with critical type fuel (from the standpoint of flameout and restart capability), and with the airplane initially at the maximum certificated altitude. Parts of the electrical system may remain on if --

(1) A single malfunction, including a wire bundle or junction box fire, cannot result in loss of both the part turned off and the part turned on; and

(2) The parts turned on are electrically and mechanically isolated from the parts turned off.

[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-41, 42 FR 36970, July 18, 1977; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29785, July 20, 1990]