Sec. 121.417 - Crewmember emergency training.

(a) Each training program must provide the emergency training set forth in this section with respect to each airplane type, model, and configuration, each required crewmember, and each kind of operation conducted, insofar as appropriate for each crewmember and the certificate holder.

(b) Emergency training must provide the following:

(1) Instruction in emergency assignments and procedures, including coordination among crewmembers.

(2) Individual instruction in the location, function, and operation of emergency equipment including --

(i) Equipment used in ditching and evacuation;

(ii) First aid equipment and its proper use;

(iii) Portable fire extinguishers, with emphasis on type of extinguisher to be used on different classes of fires; and

(iv) Emergency exits in the emergency mode with the evacuation slide/raft pack attached (if applicable), with training emphasis on the operation of the exits under adverse conditions.

(3) Instruction in the handling of emergency situations including --

(i) Rapid decompression;

(ii) Fire in flight or on the surface, and smoke control procedures with emphasis on electrical equipment and related circuit breakers found in cabin areas including all galleys, service centers, lifts, lavatories and movie screens;

(iii) Ditching and other evacuation, including the evacuation of persons and their attendants, if any, who may need the assistance of another person to move expeditiously to an exit in the event of an emergency.

(iv) Illness, injury, or other abnormal situations involving passengers or crewmembers to include familiarization with the emergency medical kit; and

(v) Hijacking and other unusual situations.

(4) Review and discussion of previous aircraft accidents and incidents pertaining to actual emergency situations.

(c) Each crewmember must accomplish the following emergency training during the specified training periods, using those items of installed emergency equipment for each type of airplane in which he or she is to serve (Alternate recurrent training required by 121.433(c) of this part may be accomplished by approved pictorial presentation or demonstration):

(1) One-time emergency drill requirements to be accomplished during initial training. Each crewmember must perform --

(i) At least one approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) drill in which the crewmember combats an actual or simulated fire using at least one type of installed hand fire extinguisher or approved fire extinguisher that is appropriate for the type of actual fire or simulated fire to be fought while using the type of installed PBE required by 121.337 or approved PBE simulation device as defined by paragraph (d) of this section for combatting fires aboard airplanes;

(ii) At least one approved firefighting drill in which the crewmember combats an actual fire using at least one type of installed hand fire extinguisher or approved fire extinguisher that is appropriate for the type of fire to be fought. This firefighting drill is not required if the crewmember performs the PBE drill of paragraph (c)(1)(i) by combating an actual fire; and

(iii) An emergency evacuation drill with each person egressing the airplane or approved training device using at least one type of installed emergency evacuation slide. The crewmember may either observe the airplane exits being opened in the emergency mode and the associated exit slide/raft pack being deployed and inflated, or perform the tasks resulting in the accomplishment of these actions.

(2) Additional emergency drill requirements to be accomplished during initial training and once each 24 calendar months during recurrent training. Each crewmember must --

(i) Perform the following emergency drills and operate the following equipment:

(A) Each type of emergency exit in the normal and emergency modes, including the actions and forces required in the deployment of the emergency evacuation slides;

(B) Each type of installed hand fire extinguisher;

(C) Each type of emergency oxygen system to include protective breathing equipment;

(D) Donning, use, and inflation of individual flotation means, if applicable; and

(E) Ditching, if applicable, including but not limited to, as appropriate:

(1) Cockpit preparation and procedures;

(2) Crew coordination;

(3) Passenger briefing and cabin preparation;

(4) Donning and inflation of life preservers;

(5) Use of life-lines; and

(6) Boarding of passengers and crew into raft or a slide/raft pack.

(ii) Observe the following drills:

(A) Removal from the airplane (or training device) and inflation of each type of life raft, if applicable;

(B) Transfer of each type of slide/raft pack from one door to another;

(C) Deployment, inflation, and detachment from the airplane (or training device) of each type of slide/raft pack; and

(D) Emergency evacuation including the use of a slide.

(d) After September 1, 1993, no crewmember may serve in operations under this part unless that crewmember has performed the PBE drill and the firefighting drill described by paragraphs (c)(1)(i) and (c)(1)(ii) of this section, as part of a one-time training requirement of paragraphs (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section as appropriate. Any crewmember who performs the PBE drill and the firefighting drill prescribed in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) and (c)(1)(ii) of this section after May 26, 1987, is deemed to be in compliance with this regulation upon presentation of information or documentation, in a form and manner acceptable to the Director, Flight Standards Service, showing that the appropriate drills have been accomplished.

(e) Crewmembers who serve in operations above 25,000 feet must receive instruction in the following:

(1) Respiration.

(2) Hypoxia.

(3) Duration of consciousness without supplemental oxygen at altitude.

(4) Gas expansion.

(5) Gas bubble formation.

(6) Physical phenomena and incidents of decompression.

(f) For the purposes of this section the following definitions apply:

(1) Actual fire means an ignited combustible material, in controlled conditions, of sufficient magnitude and duration to accomplish the training objectives outlined in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) and (c)(1)(ii) of this section.

(2) Approved fire extinguisher means a training device that has been approved by the Administrator for use in meeting the training requirements of 121.417(c).

(3) Approved PBE simulation device means a training device that has been approved by the Administrator for use in meeting the training requirements of 121.417(c).

(4) Combats, in this context, means to properly fight an actual or simulated fire using an appropriate type of fire extinguisher until that fire is extinguished.

(5) Observe means to watch without participating actively in the drill.

(6) PBE drill means an emergency drill in which a crewmember demonstrates the proper use of protective breathing equipment while fighting an actual or simulated fire.

(7) Perform means to satisfactorily accomplish a prescribed emergency drill using established procedures that stress the skill of the persons involved in the drill.

(8) Simulated fire means an artificial duplication of smoke or flame used to create various aircraft firefighting scenarios, such as lavatory, galley oven, and aircraft seat fires.

[Doc. No. 9509, 35 FR 90, Jan. 3, 1970]