Sec. 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

(a) No certificate holder may use a person nor may any person serve as a required crewmember of an airplane unless the person has satisfactorily completed, on that type airplane and in that crewmember position, the operating experience, operating cycles, and the line operating flight time for consolidation of knowledge and skills, required by this section, except as follows:

(1) Crewmembers other than pilots in command may serve as provided herein for the purpose of meeting the requirements of this section.

(2) Pilots who are meeting the pilot in command requirements may serve as second in command.

(3) Separate operating experience, operating cycles, and line operating flight time for consolidation of knowledge and skills are not required for variations within the same type airplane.

(b) In acquiring the operating experience, operating cycles, and line operating flight time for consolidation of knowledge and skills, crewmembers must comply with the following:

(1) In the case of a flight crewmember, he must hold the appropriate certificates and ratings for the crewmember position and the airplane, except that a pilot who is meeting the pilot in command requirements must hold the appropriate certificates and ratings for a pilot in command in the airplane.

(2) The operating experience, operating cycles, and line operating flight time for consolidation of knowledge and skills must be acquired after satisfactory completion of the appropriate ground and flight training for the particular airplane type and crewmember position.

(3) The experience must be acquired in flight during operations under this part. However, in the case of an aircraft not previously used by the certificate holder in operations under this part, operating experience acquired in the aircraft during proving flights or ferry flights may be used to meet this requirement.

(c) Pilot crewmembers must acquire operating experience and operating cycles as follows:

(1) A pilot in command must --

(i) Perform the duties of a pilot in command under the supervision of a check pilot; and

(ii) In addition, if a qualifying pilot in command is completing initial or upgrade training specified in 121.424, be observed in the performance of prescribed duties by an FAA inspector during at least one flight leg which includes a takeoff and landing. During the time that a qualifying pilot in command is acquiring the operating experience in paragraphs (c)(l) (i) and (ii) of this section, a check pilot who is also serving as the pilot in command must occupy a pilot station. However, in the case of a transitioning pilot in command the check pilot serving as pilot in command may occupy the observer's seat, if the transitioning pilot has made at least two takeoffs and landings in the type airplane used, and has satisfactorily demonstrated to the check pilot that he is qualified to perform the duties of a pilot in command of that type of airplane.

(2) A second in command pilot must perform the duties of a second in command under the supervision of an appropriately qualified check pilot.

(3) The hours of operating experience and operating cycles for all pilots are as follows:

(i) For initial training, 15 hours in Group I reciprocating powered airplanes, 20 hours in Group I turbopropeller powered airplanes, and 25 hours in Group II airplanes. Operating experience in both airplane groups must include at least 4 operating cycles (at least 2 as the pilot flying the airplane).

(ii) For transition training, except as provided in paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section, 10 hours in Group I reciprocating powered airplanes, 12 hours in Group I turbopropeller powered airplanes, 25 hours for pilots in command in Group II airplanes, and 15 hours for second in command pilots in Group II airplanes. Operating experience in both airplane groups must include at least 4 operating cycles (at least 2 as the pilot flying the airplane).

(iii) In the case of transition training where the certificate holder's approved training program includes a course of training in an airplane simulator under 121.409(c), each pilot in command must comply with the requirements prescribed in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section for initial training.

(d) A flight engineer must perform the duties of a flight engineer under the supervision of a check airman or a qualified flight engineer for at least the following number of hours:

(1) Group I reciprocating powered airplanes, 8 hours.

(2) Group I turbopropeller powered airplanes, 10 hours.

(3) Group II airplanes, 12 hours.

(e) A flight attendant must, for at least 5 hours, perform the assigned duties of a flight attendant under the supervision of a flight attendant supervisor qualified under this part who personally observes the performance of these duties. However, operating experience is not required for a flight attendant who has previously acquired such experience on any large passenger carrying airplane of the same group, if the certificate holder shows that the flight attendant has received sufficient ground training for the airplane in which the flight attendant is to serve. Flight attendants receiving operating experience may not be assigned as a required crewmember. Flight attendants who have satisfactorily completed training time acquired in an approved training program conducted in a full-scale (except for length) cabin training device of the type airplane in which they are to serve may substitute this time for 50 percent of the hours required by this paragraph.

(f) Flight crewmembers may substitute one additional takeoff and landing for each hour of flight to meet the operating experience requirements of this section, up to a maximum reduction of 50% of flight hours, except those in Group II initial training, and second in command pilots in Group II transition training. Notwithstanding the reductions in programmed hours permitted under 121.405 and 121.409, the hours of operating experience for flight crewmembers are not subject to reduction other than as provided in this paragraph and paragraph (e) of this section.

(g) Except as provided in paragraph (h) of this section, pilot in command and second in command crewmembers must each acquire at least 100 hours of line operating flight time for consolidation of knowledge and skills (including operating experience required under paragraph (c) of this section) within 120 days after the satisfactory completion of:

(1) Any part of the flight maneuvers and procedures portion of either an airline transport pilot certificate with type rating practical test or an additional type rating practical test, or

(2) A 121.441 proficiency check.

(h) The following exceptions apply to the consolidation requirement of paragraph (g) of this section:

(1) Pilots who have qualified and served as pilot in command or second in command on a particular type airplane in operations under this part before August 25, 1995 are not required to complete line operating flight time for consolidation of knowledge and skills.

(2) Pilots who have completed the line operating flight time requirement for consolidation of knowledge and skills while serving as second in command on a particular type airplane in operations under this part after August 25, 1995 are not required to repeat the line operating flight time before serving as pilot in command on the same type airplane.

(3) If, before completing the required 100 hours of line operating flight time, a pilot serves as a pilot in another airplane type operated by the certificate holder, the pilot may not serve as a pilot in the airplane for which the pilot has newly qualified unless the pilot satifactorily completes refresher training as provided in the certificate holder's approved training program and that training is conducted by an appropriately qualified instructor or check pilot.

(4) If the required 100 hours of line operating flight time are not completed within 120 days, the certificate holder may extend the 120-day period to no more than 150 days if --

(i) The pilot continues to meet all other applicable requirements of subpart O of this part; and

(ii) On or before the 120th day the pilot satisfactorily completes refresher training conducted by an appropriately qualified instructor or check pilot as provided in the certificate holder's approved training program, or a check pilot determines that the pilot has retained an adequate level of proficiency after observing that pilot in a supervised line operating flight.

(5) The Administrator, upon application by the certificate holder, may authorize deviations from the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section, by an appropriate amendment to the operations specifications, to the extent warranted by any of the following circumstances:

(i) A newly certificated certificate holder does not employ any pilots who meet the minimum requirements of paragraph (g) of this section.

(ii) An existing certificate holder adds to its fleet an airplane type not before proven for use in its operations.

(iii) A certificate holder establishes a new domicile to which it assigns pilots who will be required to become qualified on the airplanes operated from that domicile.

(i) Notwithstanding the reductions in programmed hours permitted under 121.405 and 121.409 of subpart N of this part, the hours of operating experience for flight crewmembers are not subject to reduction other than as provided in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section.

[Doc. No. 9509, 35 FR 95, Jan. 3, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 121-74, 36 FR 12284, June 30, 1971; Amdt. 121-91, 37 FR 10729, May 27, 1972; Amdt. 121-140, 43 FR 9599, Mar. 9, 1978; Amdt. 121-144, 43 FR 22647, May 25, 1978; Amdt. 121-159, 45 FR 41593, June 19, 1980; Amdt. 121-248, 60 FR 20870, Apr. 27, 1995]