Appendix E to Part 121 - Flight Training Requirements

The maneuvers and procedures required by 121.424 of this part for pilot initial, transition, and upgrade flight training are set forth in the certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program and in this appendix and must be performed inflight except that windshear maneuvers and procedures must be performed in an airplane simulator in which the maneuvers and procedures are specifically authorized to be accomplished and except to the extent that certain other maneuvers and procedures may be performed in an airplane simulator with a visual system (visual simulator), an airplane simulator without a visual system (nonvisual simulator), a training device, or a static airplane as indicated by the appropriate symbol in the respective column opposite the maneuver or procedure.

Whenever a maneuver or procedure is authorized to be performed in a nonvisual simulator, it may be performed in a visual simulator; when authorized in a training device, it may be performed in a visual or nonvisual simulator, and in some cases, a static airplane. Whenever the requirement may be performed in either a training device or a static airplane, the appropriate symbols are entered in the respective columns.

For the purpose of this appendix, the following symbols mean -- P=Pilot in Command (PIC). S=Second in Command (SIC). B=PIC and SIC. F=Flight Engineer. PJ=PIC transition Jet to Jet. PP=PIC transition Prop. to Prop. SJ=SIC transition Jet to Jet. SP=SIC transition Prop. to Prop. AT=All transition categories (PJ, PP, SJ, SP). PS=SIC upgrading to PIC (same airplane). SF=Flight Engineer upgrading to SIC (same airplane). BU=Both SIC and Flight Engineer upgrading (same airplane).

                                                                                                                                              Flight Training Requirements
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                                                                                  Initial training                                                                         Transition training                                                                       Upgrade training
                                             ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              A/P                                       Simulator                                       A/P                                       Simulator                                       A/P                                      Simulator
            Maneuvers/Procedures             ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                        Nonvisual                                                                                 Nonvisual                                                                                Nonvisual
                                                  Inflight           Static       Visual simulator      simulator      Training device      Inflight           Static       Visual simulator      simulator      Training device      Inflight           Static       Visual simulator     simulator     Training device
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As appropriate to the airplane and the        ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
 operation involved, flight training for
 pilots must include the following maneuvers
 and procedures..
I. Preflight:
  (a) Visual inspection of the exterior and   ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ................  ...............  ...............
   interior of the airplane, the location of
   each item to be inspected, and the
   purpose for inspecting it. If a flight
   engineer is a required crewmember for the
   particular type of airplane, the visual
   inspection may be replaced by using an
   approved pictorial means that
   realistically portrays the location and
   detain of preflight inspection items..
  (b) Use of the prestart check list,         ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
   appropriate control system checks,
   starting procedures, radio and electronic
   equipment checks, and the selection of
   proper navigation and communications
   radio facilities and frequencies prior to
   flight.
  (c) Taxiing, sailing, and docking           B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
   procedures in compliance with
   instructions issued by the appropriate
   Traffic Control Authority or by the
   person conducting the training.
  (d) Pretakeoff checks that include power-   ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
   plant checks.
II. Takeoffs:
  (a) Normal takeoffs which, for the purpose  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
   of this maneuver, begin when the airplane
   is taxied into position on the runway to
   be used.
  (b) Takeoffs with instrument conditions     ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ...............  ...............
   simulated at or before reaching an
   altitude of 100[foot] above the airport
   elevation.
  (c) Crosswind takeoffs....................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
  (d) Takeoffs with a simulated failure of    ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ...............  ...............
   the most critical powerplant_.
    (1) At a point after V[INF]1[/INF] and    ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
     before V[INF]2[/INF] that in the
     judgment of the person conducting the
     training is appropriate to the airplane
     type under the prevailing conditions;
     or.
    (2) At a point as close as possible       ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
     after V[INF]1[/INF] when V[INF]1[/INF]
     and V[INF]2[/INF] or V[INF]1[/INF] and
     V[INF]R[/INF] are identical; or.
    (3) At the appropriate speed for          ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
     nontransport category airplanes.
For transition training in an airplane group  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
 with engines mounted in similar positions,
 or from wing-mounted engines to aft
 fuselage-mounted engines, the maneuver may
 be performed in a nonvisual simulator.
  (e) Rejected takeoffs accomplished during   ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
   a normal takeoff run after reaching a
   reasonable speed determined by giving due
   consideration to aircraft
   characteristics, runway length, surface
   conditions, wind direction and velocity,
   brake heat energy, and any other
   pertinent factors that may adversely
   affect safety or the airplane.
  Training in at least one of the above       ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
   takeoffs must be accomplished at night.
   For transitioning pilots this requirement
   may be met during the operating
   experience required under  121.434
   of this part by performing a normal
   takeoff at night when a check airman
   serving as pilot-in-command is occupying
   a pilot station.
III. Flight Maneuvers and Procedures:
  (a) Turns with and without spoilers.......  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
  (b) Tuck and Mach buffet..................  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
  (c) Maximum endurance and maximum range     ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
   procedures.
  (d) Operation of systems and controls at    ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  PS.............  ...............
   the flight engineer station.
  (e) Runway and jammed stabilizer..........  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
  (f) Normal and abnormal or alternate
   operation of the following systems and
   procedures:
    (1) Pressurization......................  ................  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ...............  BU
    (2) Pneumatic...........................  ................  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ...............  BU
    (3) Air conditioning....................  ................  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ...............  BU
    (4) Fuel and oil........................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  B...............  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  BU..............  ................  ...............  BU
    (5) Electrical..........................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  B...............  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  BU..............  ................  ...............  BU
    (6) Hydraulic...........................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  B...............  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  BU..............  ................  ...............  BU
    (7) Flight control......................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  B...............  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ................  ...............  BU
    (8) Anti-icing and deicing..............  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
    (9) Auto-pilot..........................  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
    (10) Automatic or other approach aids...  B...............  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  SF..............  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
    (11) Stall warning devices, stall         B...............  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  SF..............  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
     avoidance devices, and stability
     augmentation devices.
    (12) Airborne radar devices.............  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
    (13) Any other systems, devices, or aids  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
     available.
    (14) Electrical, hydraulic, flight        ................  B...............  ................  ................  B...............  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  BU..............  ................  ...............  BU
     control, and flight instrument system
     malfunctioning or failure.
    (15) Landing gear and flap systems        ................  B...............  ................  ................  B...............  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  BU..............  ................  ...............  BU
     failure or malfunction.
    (16) Failure of navigation or             ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
     communications equipment.
  (g) Flight emergency procedures that
   include at least the following:
    (1) Powerplant, heater, cargo             ................  B...............  ................  ................  B...............  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  BU..............  ................  ...............  BU
     compartment, cabin, flight deck, wing,
     and electrical fires.
    (2) Smoke control.......................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  B...............  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  BU..............  ................  BU.............  BU
    (3) Powerplant failures.................  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  BU
    (4) Fuel jettisoning....................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  B...............  ................  B...............  ................  ................  B...............  ................  BU..............  ................  ...............  BU
    (5) Any other emergency procedures        ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
     outlined in the appropriate flight
     manual.
  (h) Steep turns in each direction. Each     ................  ................  ................  P...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  PJ..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  PS.............  ...............
   steep turn must involve a bank angle of
   45 with a heading change of at
   least 180 but not more than
   360.
  (i) Approaches to stalls in the takeoff     ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
   configuration (except where the airplane
   uses only a zero-flap configuration), in
   the clean configuration, and in the
   landing configuration.
Training in at least one of the above         ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
 configurations must be accomplished while
 in a turn with a bank angle between
 15 and 30.
  (j) Recovery from specific flight           ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
   characteristics that are peculiar to the
   airplane type.
  (k) Instrument procedures that include the
   following:
    (1) Area departure and arrival..........  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
    (2) Use of navigation systems including   ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
     adherence to assigned radials.
    (3) Holding.............................  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU.............  ...............
  (l) ILS instrument approaches that include
   the following:
    (1) Normal ILS approaches...............  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
    (2) Manually controlled ILS approaches    B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ...............  ...............
     with a simulated failure of one
     powerplane which occurs before
     initiating the final approach course
     and continues to touchdown or through
     the missed approach procedure.
  (m) Instrument approaches and missed
   approaches other than ILS which include
   the following:
    (1) Nonprecision approaches that the      ................  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  BU..............  ...............  ...............
     trainee is likely to use.
    (2) In addition to subparagraph (1) of    ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ...............  ...............
     this paragraph, at least one other
     nonprecision approach and missed
     approach procedure that the trainee is
     likely to use.
In connection with paragraphs III(k) and      ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
 III(l), each instrument approach must be
 performed according to any procedures and
 limitations approved for the approach
 facility used. The instrument approach
 begins when the airplane is over the
 initial approach fix for the approach
 procedure being used (or turned over to the
 final approach controller in the case of
 GCA approach) and ends when the airplane
 touches down on the runway or when
 transition to a missed approach
 configuration is completed.
  (n) Circling approaches which include the   B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
   following:
    (1) That portion of the circling          ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
     approach to the authorized minimum
     altitude for the procedure being used
     must be made under simulated instrument
     conditions.
    (2) The circling approach must be made    ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
     to the authorized minimum circling
     approach altitude followed by a change
     in heading and the necessary
     maneuvering (by visual reference) to
     maintain a flight path that permits a
     normal landing on a runway at least
     90 from the final approach course
     of the simulated instrument portion of
     the approach.
    (3) The circling approach must be         ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
     performed without excessive
     maneuvering, and without exceeding the
     normal operating limits of the
     airplane. The angle of bank should not
     exceed 30.
Training in the circling approach maneuver    ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
 is not required for a pilot employed by a
 certificate holder subject to the operating
 rules of Part 121 of this chapter if the
 certificate holder's manual prohibits a
 circling approach in weather conditions
 below 1000-3 (ceiling and visibility); for
 a SIC if the certificate holder's manual
 prohibits the SIC from performing a
 circling approach in operations under this
 part.
  (o) Zero-flap approaches. Training in this  P...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  PP, PJ..........  ................  ................  ................  ................  PS..............  ...............  ...............
   maneuver is not required for a particular
   airplane type if the Administrator has
   determined that the probability of flap
   extension failure on that type airplane
   is extremely remote due to system design.
   In making this determination, the
   Administrator determines whether training
   on slats only and partial flap approaches
   is necessary.
  (p) Missed approaches which include the
   following:
    (1) Missed approaches from ILS            ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ...............  ...............
     approaches.
    (2) Other missed approaches.............  ................  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ...............  BU
    (3) Missed approaches that include a      ................  ................  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ...............  BU
     complete approved missed approach
     procedure.
    (4) Missed approaches that include a      ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ...............  ...............
     powerplant failure.
IV. Landings and Approaches to Landings:
  (a) Normal landings.......................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
  (b) Landing and go around with the          P...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  PJ, PP..........  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  PS
   horizontal stabilizer out of trim.
  (c) Landing in sequence from an ILS         B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ...............  ...............
   instrument approach.
  (d) Cross wind landing....................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
  (e) Maneuvering to a landing with
   simulated powerplant failure, as follows:
    (1) Except as provided in subparagraph    P...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  PJ, PP..........  ................  ................  ................  ................  PS..............  ...............  ...............
     (3) of this paragraph in the case of 3-
     engine airplanes, maneuvering to a
     landing with an approved procedure that
     approximates the loss of two
     powerplants (center and one out-board
     engine).
    (2) Except as provided in subparagraph    P...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  PJ, PP..........  ................  ................  ................  ................  PS..............  ...............  ...............
     (3) of this paragraph, in the case of
     other multiengine airplanes,
     maneuvering to a landing with a
     simulated failure of 50 percent of
     available powerplants with the
     simulated loss of power on one side of
     the airplane.
    (3) Notwithstanding the requirements of
     subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this
     paragraph, flight crewmembers who
     satisfy those requirements in a visual
     simulator must also:
      (i ) Take inflight training in one-     ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
       engine inoperative landings; and.
      (ii ) In the case of a second-in-       ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
       command up-grading to a pilot-in-
       command and who has not previously
       performed the maneuvers required by
       this paragraph in flight, meet the
       requirements of this paragraph
       applicable to initial training for
       pilots-in-command.
    (4) In the case of flight crewmembers     ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
     other than the pilot-in-command,
     perform the maneuver with the simulated
     loss of power of the most critical
     powerplant only.
  (f) Landing under simulated circling        B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ...............  ...............
   approach conditions (exceptions under
   III(n) applicable to this requirement).
  (g) Rejected landings that include a        B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ...............  ...............
   normal missed approach procedure after
   the landing is rejected. For the purpose
   of this maneuver the landing should be
   rejected at approximately 50 feet and
   approximately over the runway threshold.
  (h) Zero-flap landings if the               P...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  PP, PJ..........  ................  ................  ................  ................  PS..............  ...............  ...............
   Administrator finds that maneuver
   appropriate for training in the airplane.
  (i) Manual reversion (if appropriate).....  ................  ................  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ...............  ...............
  Training in landings and approaches to      ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
   landings must include the types and
   conditions provided in IV(a) through (i)
   but more than one type may be combined
   where appropriate.
  Training in one of the above landings must  B...............  ................  ................  ................  ................  AT..............  ................  ................  ................  ................  BU..............  ................  ................  ...............  ...............
   be accomplished at night. For
   transitioning pilots, this requirement
   may be met during the operating
   experience required under  121.434
   of this part by performing a normal
   landing when a check pilot serving as
   pilot-in-command is occupying a pilot
   station.
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 [Doc. No. 9509, 35 FR 97, Jan. 3, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 121-91, 37 FR 10730, May 27, 1972; Amdt. 121-108, 38 FR 35446, Dec. 28, 1973; Amdt. 121-159, 45 FR 41595, June 19, 1980; Amdt. 121-
 199, 53 FR 37697, Sept. 27, 1988]