(a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (c)(3) and (e) of
this section, no person may operate a powered civil aircraft with a
standard category U.S. airworthiness certificate in any operation
described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section unless that
aircraft contains the instruments and equipment specified in those
paragraphs (or FAA-approved equivalents) for that type of operation, and
those instruments and items of equipment are in operable condition.
(b) Visual-flight rules (day). For VFR flight during the day,
the following instruments and equipment are required:
(1) Airspeed indicator.
(3) Magnetic direction indicator.
(4) Tachometer for each engine.
(5) Oil pressure gauge for each engine using pressure system.
(6) Temperature gauge for each liquid-cooled engine.
(7) Oil temperature gauge for each air-cooled engine.
(8) Manifold pressure gauge for each altitude engine.
(9) Fuel gauge indicating the quantity of fuel in each tank.
(10) Landing gear position indicator, if the aircraft has a retractable
(11) For small civil airplanes certificated after March 11, 1996, in
accordance with part 23 of this chapter, an approved aviation red or
aviation white anticollision light system. In the event of failure of any
light of the anticollision light system, operation of the aircraft may
continue to a location where repairs or replacement can be made.
(12) If the aircraft is operated for hire over water and beyond
power-off gliding distance from shore, approved flotation gear readily
available to each occupant and at least one pyrotechnic signaling device.
As used in this section, "shore" means that area of the land adjacent to
the water which is above the high water mark and excludes land areas which
are intermittently under water.
(13) An approved safety belt with an approved metal-to-metal latching
device for each occupant 2 years of age or older.
(14) For small civil airplanes manufactured after July 18, 1978, an
approved shoulder harness for each front seat. The shoulder harness must
be designed to protect the occupant from serious head injury when the
occupant experiences the ultimate inertia forces specified in
§23.561(b)(2) of this chapter. Each shoulder harness installed at a flight
crewmember station must permit the crewmember, when seated and with the
safety belt and shoulder harness fastened, to perform all functions
necessary for flight operations. For purposes of this paragraph --
(i) The date of manufacture of an airplane is the date the inspection
acceptance records reflect that the airplane is complete and meets the FAA-approved
type design data; and
(ii) A front seat is a seat located at a flight crewmember station or
any seat located alongside such a seat.
(15) An emergency locator transmitter, if required by §91.207.
(16) For normal, utility, and acrobatic category airplanes with a
seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 9 or less, manufactured
after December 12, 1986, a shoulder harness for --
(i) Each front seat that meets the requirements of §23.785 (g) and (h)
of this chapter in effect on December 12, 1985;
(ii) Each additional seat that meets the requirements of §23.785(g) of
this chapter in effect on December 12, 1985.
(17) For rotorcraft manufactured after September 16, 1992, a shoulder
harness for each seat that meets the requirements of §27.2 or §29.2 of
this chapter in effect on September 16, 1991.
(c) Visual flight rules (night). For VFR flight at night, the
following instruments and equipment are required:
(1) Instruments and equipment specified in paragraph (b) of this
(2) Approved position lights.
(3) An approved aviation red or aviation white anticollision light
system on all U.S.-registered civil aircraft. Anticollision light systems
initially installed after August 11, 1971, on aircraft for which a type
certificate was issued or applied for before August 11, 1971, must at
least meet the anticollision light standards of part 23, 25, 27, or 29 of
this chapter, as applicable, that were in effect on August 10, 1971,
except that the color may be either aviation red or aviation white. In the
event of failure of any light of the anticollision light system,
operations with the aircraft may be continued to a stop where repairs or
replacement can be made.
(4) If the aircraft is operated for hire, one electric landing light.
(5) An adequate source of electrical energy for all installed
electrical and radio equipment.
(6) One spare set of fuses, or three spare fuses of each kind required,
that are accessible to the pilot in flight.
(d) Instrument flight rules. For IFR flight, the following
instruments and equipment are required:
(1) Instruments and equipment specified in paragraph (b) of this
section, and, for night flight, instruments and equipment specified in
paragraph (c) of this section.
(2) Two-way radio communications system and navigational equipment
appropriate to the ground facilities to be used.
(3) Gyroscopic rate-of-turn indicator, except on the following
(i) Airplanes with a third attitude instrument system usable through
flight attitudes of 360 degrees of pitch and roll and installed in
accordance with the instrument requirements prescribed in §121.305(j) of
this chapter; and
(ii) Rotorcraft with a third attitude instrument system usable through
flight attitudes of ±80 degrees of pitch and ±120 degrees of roll and
installed in accordance with §29.1303(g) of this chapter.
(4) Slip-skid indicator.
(5) Sensitive altimeter adjustable for barometric pressure.
(6) A clock displaying hours, minutes, and seconds with a sweep-second
pointer or digital presentation.
(7) Generator or alternator of adequate capacity.
(8) Gyroscopic pitch and bank indicator (artificial horizon).
(9) Gyroscopic direction indicator (directional gyro or equivalent).
(e) Flight at and above 24,000 ft. MSL (FL 240). If VOR
navigational equipment is required under paragraph (d)(2) of this section,
no person may operate a U.S.-registered civil aircraft within the 50
states and the District of Columbia at or above FL 240 unless that
aircraft is equipped with approved distance measuring equipment (DME).
When DME required by this paragraph fails at and above FL 240, the pilot
in command of the aircraft shall notify ATC immediately, and then may
continue operations at and above FL 240 to the next airport of intended
landing at which repairs or replacement of the equipment can be made.
(f) Category II operations. The requirements for Category II
operations are the instruments and equipment specified in --
(1) Paragraph (d) of this section; and
(2) Appendix A to this part.
(g) Category III operations. The instruments and equipment
required for Category III operations are specified in paragraph (d) of
(h) Exclusions. Paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section do not
apply to operations conducted by a holder of a certificate issued under
part 121 or
part 135 of this chapter.