(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c), (d), and (f) of this section,
no person may take off an airplane for a flight over water more than 30
minutes flying time or 100 nautical miles from the nearest shore unless it
has at least the following operable equipment:
(1) Radio communication equipment appropriate to the facilities to be
used and able to transmit to, and receive from, any place on the route, at
least one surface facility:
(i) Two transmitters.
(ii) Two microphones.
(iii) Two headsets or one headset and one speaker.
(iv) Two independent receivers.
(2) Appropriate electronic navigational equipment consisting of at
least two independent electronic navigation units capable of providing the
pilot with the information necessary to navigate the airplane within the
airspace assigned by air traffic control. However, a receiver that can
receive both communications and required navigational signals may be used
in place of a separate communications receiver and a separate navigational
signal receiver or unit.
(b) For the purposes of paragraphs (a)(1)(iv) and (a)(2) of this
section, a receiver or electronic navigation unit is independent if the
function of any part of it does not depend on the functioning of any part
of another receiver or electronic navigation unit.
(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section, a
person may operate an airplane on which no passengers are carried from a
place where repairs or replacement cannot be made to a place where they
can be made, if not more than one of each of the dual items of radio
communication and navigational equipment specified in paragraphs (a)(1) (i)
through (iv) and (a)(2) of this section malfunctions or becomes
(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section,
when both VHF and HF communications equipment are required for the route
and the airplane has two VHF transmitters and two VHF receivers for
communications, only one HF transmitter and one HF receiver is required
(e) As used in this section, the term shore means that area of
the land adjacent to the water which is above the high-water mark and
excludes land areas which are intermittently under water.
(f) Notwithstanding the requirements in paragraph (a)(2) of this
section, a person may operate in the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea,
and the Atlantic Ocean west of a line which extends from 44°47&min;00&sec;
N / 67°00&min;00&sec; W to 39°00&min;00&sec; N / 67°00&min;00&sec; W to
38°30&min;00&sec; N / 60°00&min;00&sec; W south along the
60°00&min;00&sec; W longitude line to the point where the line intersects
with the northern coast of South America, when:
(1) A single long-range navigation system is installed, operational,
and appropriate for the route; and
(2) Flight conditions and the aircraft's capabilities are such that no
more than a 30-minute gap in two-way radio very high frequency
communications is expected to exist.