Sec. 61.57 - Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.

(a) General experience. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, no person may act as a pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers or of an aircraft certificated for more than one pilot flight crewmember unless that person has made at least three takeoffs and three landings within the preceding 90 days, and --

(i) The person acted as the sole manipulator of the flight controls; and

(ii) The required takeoffs and landings were performed in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type (if a type rating is required), and, if the aircraft to be flown is an airplane with a tailwheel, the takeoffs and landings must have been made to a full stop in an airplane with a tailwheel.

(2) For the purpose of meeting the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a person may act as a pilot in command of an aircraft under day VFR or day IFR, provided no persons or property are carried on board the aircraft, other than those necessary for the conduct of the flight.

(3) The takeoffs and landings required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be accomplished in a flight simulator or flight training device that is --

(i) Approved by the Administrator for landings; and

(ii) Used in accordance with an approved course conducted by a training center certificated under part 142 of this chapter.

(b) Night takeoff and landing experience. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, no person may act as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise, unless within the preceding 90 days that person has made at least three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise, and --

(i) That person acted as sole manipulator of the flight controls; and

(ii) The required takeoffs and landings were performed in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type (if a type rating is required).

(2) The takeoffs and landings required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section may be accomplished in a flight simulator that is --

(i) Approved by the Administrator for takeoffs and landings, if the visual system is adjusted to represent the period described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section; and

(ii) Used in accordance with an approved course conducted by a training center certificated under part 142 of this chapter.

(c) Instrument experience. Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, no person may act as pilot in command under IFR or in weather conditions less than the minimums prescribed for VFR, unless within the preceding 6 calendar months, that person has:

(1) For the purpose of obtaining instrument experience in an aircraft (other than a glider), performed and logged under actual or simulated instrument conditions, either in flight in the appropriate category of aircraft for the instrument privileges sought or in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of the aircraft category for the instrument privileges sought --

(i) At least six instrument approaches;

(ii) Holding procedures; and

(iii) Intercepting and tracking courses through the use of navigation systems.

(2) For the purpose of obtaining instrument experience in a glider, performed and logged under actual or simulated instrument conditions --

(i) At least 3 hours of instrument time in flight, of which 1 1/2 hours may be acquired in an airplane or a glider if no passengers are to be carried; or

(ii) 3 hours of instrument time in flight in a glider if a passenger is to be carried.

(d) Instrument proficiency check. Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, a person who does not meet the instrument experience requirements of paragraph (c) of this section within the prescribed time, or within 6 calendar months after the prescribed time, may not serve as pilot in command under IFR or in weather conditions less than the minimums prescribed for VFR until that person passes an instrument proficiency check consisting of a representative number of tasks required by the instrument rating practical test.

(1) The instrument proficiency check must be --

(i) In an aircraft that is appropriate to the aircraft category;

(ii) For other than a glider, in a flight simulator or flight training device that is representative of the aircraft category; or

(iii) For a glider, in a single-engine airplane or a glider.

(2) The instrument proficiency check must be given by --

(i) An examiner;

(ii) A person authorized by the U.S. Armed Forces to conduct instrument flight tests, provided the person being tested is a member of the U.S. Armed Forces;

(iii) A company check pilot who is authorized to conduct instrument flight tests under part 121, 125, or 135 of this chapter, and provided that both the check pilot and the pilot being tested are employees of that operator;

(iv) An authorized instructor; or

(v) A person approved by the Administrator to conduct instrument practical tests.

(e) Exceptions. (1) Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section do not apply to a pilot in command who is employed by a certificate holder under part 125 and engaged in a flight operation for that certificate holder if the pilot is in compliance with 125.281 and 125.285 of this chapter.

(2) This section does not apply to a pilot in command who is employed by an air carrier certificated under part 121 or 135 and is engaged in a flight operation under part 91, 121, or 135 for that air carrier if the pilot is in compliance with 121.437 and 121.439, or 135.243 and 135.247 of this chapter, as appropriate.

(3) Paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to a pilot in command who operates more than one type of an airplane that is type certificated for more than one pilot flight crewmember, provided the pilot --

(i) Holds at least a valid commercial pilot certificate with the appropriate type rating for each airplane that the pilot seeks to operate under this alternative;

(ii) Has logged at least 1500 hours total time as a pilot;

(iii) Has accomplished at least 15 hours of flight time in the type of airplane that the pilot seeks to operate under this alternative within the preceding 90 days prior to the operation of that airplane; and

(iv) Has accomplished --

(A) At least three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop, during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise as the sole manipulator of the flight controls in at least one of the types of airplanes that the pilot seeks to operate under this alternative, within the preceding 90 days prior to the operation of any of the types of airplanes that the pilot seeks to operate under this alternative; or

(B) Completion of an approved training program under part 142 of this chapter within the preceding 12 calendar months prior to the month of the flight, which requires the performance of at least 6 takeoffs and 6 landings to a full stop as the sole manipulator of the controls in a flight simulator that is representative of at least one of the types of airplanes that the pilot seeks to operate under this alternative, and the flight simulator's visual system was adjusted to represent the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise.

[Doc. No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, Apr. 4, 1997; Amdt. 61-103, 62 FR 40898, July 30, 1997; Amdt. 61-106, 64 FR 23529, Apr. 30, 1999]