Appendix H to Part 36 - Noise Requirements For Helicopters Under Subpart H

PART A -- REFERENCE CONDITIONS Sec.

H36.1      General.

H36.3      Reference Test Conditions.

H36.5      Symbols and Units.

PART B -- NOISE MEASUREMENT UNDER 36.801

H36.101      Noise certification test and measurement conditions.

H36.103      Takeoff test conditions.

H36.105      Flyover test conditions.

H36.107      Approach test conditions.

H36.109      Measurement of helicopter noise received on the ground.

H36.111      Reporting and correcting measured data.

H36.113      Atmospheric attenuation of sound.

PART C -- NOISE EVALUATION AND CALCULATION UNDER 36.803

H36.201      Noise evaluation in EPNdB.

H36.203      Calculation of noise levels.

H36.205      Detailed data correction procedures.

PART D -- NOISE LIMITS UNDER 36.805

H36.301      Noise measurement, evaluation, and calculation.

H36.303      [Reserved]

H36.305      Noise levels.

PART A -- REFERENCE CONDITIONS

Section H36.1 General. This appendix prescribes noise requirements for helicopters specified under 36.1, including:

(a) The conditions under which helicopter noise certification tests under Part H must be conducted and the measurement procedures that must be used under 36.801 to measure helicopter noise during each test;

(b) The procedures which must be used under 36.803 to correct the measured data to the reference conditions and to calculate the noise evaluation quantity designated as Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL); and

(c) The noise limits for which compliance must be shown under 36.805.

Section H36.3 Reference Test Conditions.

(a) Meteorological conditions. Aircraft position, performance data and noise measurements must be corrected to the following noise certification reference atmospheric conditions which shall be assumed to exist from the surface to the aircraft altitude:

(1) Sea level pressure of 2116 psf (76 cm mercury).

(2) Ambient temperature of 77 degrees F (25 degrees C).

(3) Relative humidity of 70 percent.

(4) Zero wind.

(b) Reference test site. The reference test site is flat and without line-of-sight obstructions across the flight path that encompasses the 10 dB down points.

(c) Takeoff reference profile. (1) Figure H1 illustrates a typical takeoff profile, including reference conditions.

(2) The reference flight path is defined as a straight line segment inclined from the starting point (1640 feet prior to the center microphone location at 65 feet above ground level) at an angleβ defined by the certificated best rate of climb and Vy for minimum engine performance. The constant climb angleβ is derived from the manufacturer's data (FAA-approved by the FAA) to define the flight profile for the reference conditions. The constant climb angleβ is drawn through Cr and continues, crossing over station A, to the position corresponding to the end of the type certification takeoff path represented by position Ir.

(d) Level flyover reference profile. The beginning of the level flyover reference profile is represented by helicopter position D (Figure H2). The helicopter approaches position D in level flight 492 feet above ground level as measured at station A. Airspeed is stabilized at either 0.9 VH or 0.45 VH + 65 knots (0.45 VH + 120 km/hr), whichever speed is less. Rotor speed is stabilized at the maximum continuous RPM throughout the 10 dB down time period. The helicopter crosses station A in level flight and proceeds to position J.

(e) For noise certification purposes, VH is defined as the airspeed in level flight obtained using the minimum specification engine torque corresponding to maximum continuous power available for sea level, 25 C ambient conditions at the relevant maximum certificated weight. The value of VH thus defined must be listed in the Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

(f) Approach reference profile. (1) Figure H3 illustrates approach profile, including reference conditions.

(i) The beginning of the approach profile is represented by helicopter position E. The position of the helicopter is recorded for a sufficient distance (EK) to ensure recording of the entire interval during which the measured helicopter noise level is within 10 dB of Maximum Tone Corrected Perceived Noise Level (PNLTM), as required. EK represents a stable flight condition in terms of torque, rpm, indicated airspeed, and rate of descent resulting in a 6 0.5 approach angle.

(ii) The approach profile is defined by the approach angle β passing directly over the station A at a height of AH, to position K, which terminates the approach noise certification profile.

(2) The helicopter approaches position H along a constant 6 approach slope throughout the 10 dB down time period. The helicopter crosses position E and proceeds along the approach slope crossing over station A until it reaches position K.

Section H36.5 Symbols and units. The following symbols and units as used in this appendix for helicopter noise certification have the following meanings.

                 Flight Profile Identification_Positions
------------------------------------------------------------------------
             Position                           Description
------------------------------------------------------------------------
A................................  Location of the noise measuring point
                                    at the flight-track noise measuring
                                    station vertically below the
                                    reference (takeoff, flyover, or
                                    approach) flight path.
C................................  Start of noise certification takeoff
                                    flight path.
C[INF]r[/INF]....................  Start of noise certification
                                    reference takeoff flight path.
D................................  Start of noise certification flyover
                                    flight path.
D[INF]r[/INF]....................  Start of noise certification
                                    reference flyover path.
E................................  Start of noise certification approach
                                    flight path.
E[INF]r[/INF]....................  Start of noise certification
                                    reference approach flight path.
F................................  Position on takeoff flight path
                                    directly above noise measuring
                                    station A.
G................................  Position on flyover flight path
                                    directly above noise measuring
                                    station A.
H................................  Position on approach flight path
                                    directly above noise measuring
                                    station A.
I................................  End of noise type certification
                                    takeoff flight path.
I[INF]r[/INF]....................  End of noise type certification
                                    reference takeoff flight path.
J................................  End of noise type certification
                                    flyover flight path.
J[INF]r[/INF]....................  End of noise type certification
                                    reference flyover flight path.
K................................  End of noise certification approach
                                    type flight path.
K[INF]r[/INF]....................  End of noise type certification
                                    reference approach flight path.
L................................  Position on measured takeoff flight
                                    path corresponding to PNLTM at
                                    station A.
L[INF]r[/INF]....................  Position on reference takeoff flight
                                    path corresponding to PNLTM of
                                    station A.
M................................  Position on measured flyover flight
                                    path corresponding to PNLTM of
                                    station A.
M[INF]r[/INF]....................  Position on reference flyover flight
                                    path corresponding to PNLTM of
                                    station A.
N................................  Position on measured approach flight
                                    path corresponding to PNLTM at
                                    station A.
N[INF]r[/INF]....................  Position on reference approach flight
                                    path corresponding to PNLTM at
                                    station A.
S................................  Position on measured approach path
                                    nearest to station A.
S[INF]r[/INF]....................  Position on reference approach path
                                    nearest to station A.
T................................  Position on measured takeoff path
                                    nearest to station A.
T[INF]r[/INF]....................  Position on reference takeoff path
                                    nearest to station A.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        Flight Profile Distances
------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Distance                Unit                   Meaning
------------------------------------------------------------------------
AF.....................  Feet..............  Takeoff Height. The
                                              vertical distance between
                                              helicopter and station A.
AG.....................  Feet..............  Flyover Height. The
                                              vertical distance between
                                              the helicopter and station
                                              A.
AH.....................  Feet..............  Approach Height. The
                                              vertical distance between
                                              the helicopter and station
                                              A.
AL.....................  Feet..............  Measured Takeoff Noise
                                              Path. The distance from
                                              station A to the measured
                                              helicopter position L.
AL[INF]r[/INF].........  Feet..............  Reference Takeoff Noise
                                              Path. The distance from
                                              station A to the reference
                                              helicopter position
                                              L[INF]r[/INF].
AM.....................  Feet..............  Measured Flyover Noise
                                              Path. The distance from
                                              station A to the measured
                                              helicopter position M.
AM[INF]r[/INF].........  Feet..............  Reference Flyover Noise
                                              Path. The distance from
                                              station A to helicopter
                                              position M[INF]r[/INF] on
                                              the reference flyover
                                              flight path.
AN.....................  Feet..............  Measured Approach Noise
                                              Path. The distance from
                                              station A to the measured
                                              helicopter noise position
                                              N.
AN[INF]r[/INF].........  Feet..............  Reference Approach Noise
                                              Path. The distance from
                                              station A to the reference
                                              helicopter position
                                              N[INF]r[/INF].
AS.....................  Feet..............  Measured Approach Minimum
                                              Distance. The distance
                                              from station A to the
                                              position S on the measured
                                              approach flight path.
AS[INF]r[/INF].........  Feet..............  Reference Approach Minimum
                                              Distance. The distance
                                              from station A to the
                                              position S[INF]r[/INF] on
                                              the reference approach
                                              flight path.
AT.....................  Feet..............  Measured Takeoff Minimum
                                              Distance. The distance
                                              from station A to the
                                              position T on the measured
                                              takeoff flight path.
AT[INF]r[/INF].........  Feet..............  Reference Takeoff Minimum
                                              Distance. The distance
                                              from station A to the
                                              position T[INF]r[/INF] on
                                              the reference takeoff
                                              flight path.
CI.....................  Feet..............  Takeoff Flight Path
                                              Distance. The distance
                                              from position C at which
                                              the helicopter establishes
                                              a constant climb angle on
                                              the takeoff flight path
                                              passing over station A and
                                              continuing to position I
                                              at which the position of
                                              the helicopter need no
                                              longer be recorded.
DJ.....................  Feet..............  Flyover Flight Path
                                              Distance. The distance
                                              from position D at which
                                              the helicopter is
                                              established on the flyover
                                              flight path passing over
                                              station A and continuing
                                              to position J at which the
                                              position of the helicopter
                                              need no longer be
                                              recorded.
EK.....................  Feet..............  Approach Flight Path
                                              Distance. The distance
                                              from position E at which
                                              the helicopter establishes
                                              a constant angle on the
                                              approach flight path
                                              passing over station A and
                                              continuing to position K
                                              at which the position of
                                              the helicopter need no
                                              longer be recorded.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

PART B -- NOISE MEASUREMENT UNDER 36.801

Section H36.101 Noise certification test and measurement conditions.

(a) General. This section prescribes the conditions under which aircraft noise certification tests must be conducted and the measurement procedures that must be used to measure helicopter noise during each test.

(b) Test site requirements. (1) Tests to show compliance with established helicopter noise certification levels must consist of a series of takeoffs, level flyovers, and approaches during which measurement must be taken at noise measuring stations located at the measuring points prescribed in this section.

(2) Each takeoff test, flyover test, and approach test includes simultaneous measurements at the flight-track noise measuring station vertically below the reference flight path and at two sideline noise measuring stations, one on each side of the reference flight track 492 feet (150m) from, and on a line perpendicular to, the flight track of the noise measuring station.

(3) The difference between the elevation of either sideline noise measuring station may not differ from the flight-track noise measuring station by more than 20 feet.

(4) Each noise measuring station must be surrounded by terrain having no excessive sound absorption characteristics, such as might be caused by thick, matted, or tall grass, shrubs, or wooded areas.

(5) During the period when the takeoff, flyover, or approach noise/time record indicates the noise measurement is within 10 dB of PNLTM, no obstruction that significantly influences the sound field from the aircraft may exist --

(i) For any flight-track or sideline noise measuring station, within a conical space above the measuring position (the point on the ground vertically below the microphone), the cone being defined by an axis normal to the ground and by half-angle 80 from this axis; and

(ii) For any sideline noise measuring station, above the line of sight between the microphone and the helicopter.

(6) If a takeoff or flyover test series is conducted at weights other than the maximum takeoff weight for which noise certification is requested, the following additional requirements apply:

(i) At least one takeoff test must be conducted at a weight at, or above, the maximum certification weight.

(ii) Each test weight must be within +5 percent or −10 percent of the maximum certification weight.

(iii) FAA-approved data must be used to determine the variation of EPNL with weight for takeoff test conditions.

(7) Each approach test must be conducted with the aircraft stabilized and following a 6.0 degree 0.5 degree approach angle and must meet the requirements of section H36.107 of this part.

(8) If an approach test series is conducted at weights other than the maximum landing weight for which certification is requested, the following additional requirements apply:

(i) At least one approach test must be conducted at a weight at, or above, the maximum landing weight.

(ii) Each test weight must exceed 90 percent of the maximum landing weight.

(iii) FAA-approved data must be used to determine the variation of EPNL with weight for approach test conditions.

(9) Aircraft performance data sufficient to make the corrections required under section H36.205 of this appendix must be recorded at an FAA-approved sampling rate using FAA approved equipment.

(c) Weather restrictions. The tests must be conducted under the following atmospheric conditions:

(1) No rain or other precipitation.

(2) Ambient air temperature between 36 F and 95 F (2.2 C and 35 C), inclusively, over that portion of the sound propagation path between the aircraft and a point 10 meters above the ground at the noise measuring station. The temperature and relative humidity measured at aircraft altitude and at 10 meters above ground shall be averaged and used to adjust for propagation path absorption.

(3) Relative humidity and ambient temperature over the portion of the sound propagation path between the aircraft and a point 10 meters above the ground at the noise measuring station is such that the sound attenuation in the one-third octave band centered at 8 kHz is not greater than 12 dB/100 meters and the relative humidity is between 20 percent and 95 percent, inclusively.

(4) Wind velocity as measured at 10 meters above ground does not exceed 10 knots (19 km/h) and the crosswind component does not exceed 5 knots (9 km/h). The wind shall be determined using a continuous thirty-second averaging period spanning the 10dB down time interval.

(5) No anomalous wind conditions (including turbulence) which will significantly affect the noise level of the aircraft when the noise is recorded at each noise measuring station.

(6) The wind velocity, temperature, and relative humidity measurements required under the appendix must be measured in the vicinity of noise measuring stations 10 meters above the ground. The location of the meteorological measurements must be approved by the FAA as representative of those atmospheric conditions existing near the surface over the geographical area which aircraft noise measurements are made. In some cases, a fixed meteorological station (such as those found at airports or other facilities) may meet this requirement.

(7) Temperature and relative humidity measurements must be obtained within 25 minutes of each noise test measurement. Meteorological data must be interpolated to actual times of each noise measurement.

(d) Aircraft testing procedures. (1) The aircraft testing procedures and noise measurements must be conducted and processed in a manner which yields the noise evaluation measure designated as Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) in units of EPNdB, as prescribed in appendix A of this part.

(2) The aircraft height and lateral position relative to the centerline of the reference flight-track (which passes through the noise measuring point) must be determined by an FAA approved method which is independent of normal flight instrumentation, such as radar tracking, theodolite triangulation, laser trajectography, or photographic scaling techniques.

(3) The aircraft position along the flight path must be related to the noise recorded at the noise measuring stations by means of synchronizing signals at an approved sampling rate. The position of the aircraft must be recorded relative to the runway during the entire time period in which the recorded signal is within 10 dB of PNLTM. Measuring and sampling equipment must be approved by the FAA.

Section H36.103 Takeoff test conditions.

(a) This section, in addition to the applicable requirements of sections H36.101 and H36.205(b) of this appendix, applies to all takeoff noise tests conducted under this appendix to show compliance with Part 36.

(b) A test series must consist of at least six flights over the flight-track noise measuring station (with simultaneous measurements at all three noise measuring stations) as follows:

(1) An airspeed of either Vy5 knots or the lowest approved speed 5 knots for the climb after takeoff, whichever speed is greater, must be established during the horizontal portion of each test flight and maintained during the remainder of the test flight.

(2) The horizontal portion of each test flight must be conducted at an altitude of 65 feet (20 meters) above the ground level at the flight-track noise measuring station.

(3) Upon reaching a point 1,640 feet (500 meters) from the noise measuring station, the helicopter shall be stabilized at:

(i) The torque used to establish the takeoff distance for an ambient temperature at sea level of 25 C for helicopters for which the determination of takeoff performance is required by airworthiness regulations; or

(ii) The torque corresponding to minimum installed power available for an ambient temperature at sea level of 25 C for all other helicopters.

(4) The helicopter shall be maintained throughout the takeoff reference procedure at:

(i) The speed used 5 knots to establish takeoff distance for an ambient temperature at sea level of 25 C for helicopters for which the determination of takeoff performance is required by airworthiness regulations; or

(ii) The best rate of climb speed Vy5 knots, or the lowest approved speed for climb after takeoff, whichever is greater, for an ambient temperature at sea level of 25 C for all other helicopters.

(5) The rotor speed must be stabilized at the normal operating RPM (1%) during the entire period of the test flight when the measured helicopter noise level is within 10 dB of PNLTM.

(6) The helicopter must pass over the flight-track noise measuring station within 10 from the zenith.

Section H36.105 Flyover test conditions.

(a) This section, in addition to the applicable requirements of sections H36.101 and H36.205(c) of this appendix, applies to all flyover noise tests conducted under this appendix to show compliance with Part 36.

(b) A test series must consist of at least six flights (three in each direction) over the flight-track noise measuring station (with simultaneous measurements at all three noise measuring stations) --

(1) In level flight;

(2) At a height of 492 feet 30 feet (1509 meters) above the ground level at the flight-track noise measuring station; and

(3) Within 5 from the zenith.

(c) Each flyover noise test must be conducted --

(1) At a speed of 0.9 VH or 0.45 VH+120 km/hr (0.45 VH+65 kt), whichever is less, maintained throughout the measured portion of the flyover;

(2) At rotor speed stabilized at the normal operating rotor RPM (1 percent); and

(3) With the power stabilized during the period when the measured helicopter noise level is within 10 dB of PNLTM.

(d) The airspeed shall not vary from the reference airspeed by more than 5 knots (9 km/hr).

Section H36.107 Approach test conditions.

(a) This section, in addition to the requirements of sections H36.101 and H36.205(d) of this appendix, applies to all approach tests conducted under this appendix to show compliance with Part 36.

(b) A test series must consist of at least six flights over the flight-track noise measuring station (with simultaneous measurements at the three noise measuring stations) --

(1) On an approach slope of 60.5;

(2) At a height of 39430 feet (1209 meters) above the ground level at the flight-track noise measuring station;

(3) Within 10 of the zenith;

(4) At stabilized airspeed equal to the certificated best rate of climb Vy, or the lowest approved speed for approach, whichever is greater, with power stabilized during the approach and over the flight path reference point, and continued to a normal touchdown; and

(5) At rotor speed stabilized at the maximum normal operating rotor RPM (1 percent).

(c) The airspeed shall not vary from the reference airspeed by more than 5 knots (9 km/hr).

Section H36.109 Measurement of helicopter noise received on the ground.

(a) General. (1) The measurements prescribed in this section provide the data needed to determine the one-third octave band noise produced by an aircraft during testing, at specific noise measuring stations, as a function of time.

(2) Sound pressure level data for aircraft noise certification purposes must be obtained with FAA-approved acoustical equipment and measurement practices.

(3) Paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section prescribe the required equipment specifications. Paragraphs (e) and (f) prescribe the calibration and measurement procedures required for each certification test series.

(b) Measurement system. The acoustical measurement system must consist of FAA-approved equipment equivalent to the following:

(1) A microphone system with frequency response and directivity which are compatible with the measurement and analysis system accuracy prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) Tripods or similar microphone mountings that minimize interference with the sound energy being measured.

(3) Recording and reproducing equipment, the characteristics, frequency response, and dynamic range of which are compatible with the response and accuracy requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

(4) Calibrators using sine wave, or pink noise, of known levels. When pink noise (defined in paragraph (e)(1) of this section) is used, the signal must be described in terms of its root-mean-square (rms) value.

(5) Analysis equipment with the response and accuracy which meets or exceeds the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section.

(6) Attenuators used for range changing in sensing, recording, reproducing, or analyzing aircraft sound must be capable of being operated in equal-interval decibel steps with no error between any two settings which exceeds 0.2 dB.

(c) Sensing, recording, and reproducing equipment. (1) The sound produced by the aircraft must be recorded in such a way that the complete information, including time history, is retained. A magnetic tape recorder is acceptable.

(2) The microphone must be a pressure-sensitive capacitive type, or its FAA-approved equivalent, such as a free-field type with incidence corrector.

(i) The variation of microphone and preamplifier system sensitivity within an angle of 30 degrees of grazing (60-120 degrees from the normal to the diaphragm) must not exceed the following values:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Change in
                       Frequency (Hz)                        sensitivity
            erru                                                 (dB)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
45 to 1,120................................................           1
1,120 to 2,240.............................................         1.5
2,240 to 4,500.............................................         2.5
4,500 to 7,100.............................................           4
7,100 to 11,200............................................           5
------------------------------------------------------------------------

With the windscreen in place, the sensitivity variation in the plane of the microphone diaphragm shall not exceed 1.0 dB over the frequency range 45 to 11,200 Hz.

(ii) The overall free-field frequency response at 90 degrees (grazing incidence) of the combined microphone (including incidence corrector, if applicable) preamplifier, and windscreen must be determined by using either (A) an electrostatic calibrator in combination with manufacturer-provided corrections, or (B) an anechoic free-field facility. The calibration unit must include pure tones at each preferred one-third octave frequency from 50 Hz to 10,000 Hz. The frequency response (after corrections based on that determination) must be flat and within the following tolerances: 44-3,549 Hz 0.25 dB 3,550-7,099 Hz 0.5 dB 7,100-11,200 Hz 1.0 dB

(iii) Specifications concerning sensitivity to environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and vibration must be in conformity with the recommendations of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Publication No. 179, entitled "Precision Sound Level Meters", as incorporated by reference under 36.6 of this part.

(iv) If the wind speed exceeds 6 knots, a windscreen must be employed with the microphone during each measurement of aircraft noise. Correction for any insertion loss produced by the windscreen, as a function of frequency, must be applied to the measured data and any correction applied must be reported.

(3) If a magnetic tape recorder is used to store data for subsequent analysis, the record/replay system (including tape) must conform to the following:

(i) The electric background noise produced by the system in each one-third octave must be at least 35 dB below the standard recording level, which is defined as the level that is either 10 dB below the 3 percent harmonic distortion level for direct recording or 40 percent deviation for frequency modulation (FM) recording.

(ii) At the standard recording level, the corrected frequency response in each selected one-third octave band between 44 Hz and 180 Hz must be flat and within 0.75 dB, and in each band between 180 Hz and 11,200 Hz must be flat and within 0.25 dB.

(iii) If the overall system satisfies the requirements of paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, and if the limitations of the dynamic range of the equipment are insufficient to obtain adequate spectral information, high frequency pre-emphasis may be added to the recording channel with the converse de-emphasis on playback. If pre-emphasis is added, the instantaneously recorded sound-pressure level between 800 Hz and 11,200 Hz of the maximum measured noise signal must not vary more than 20 dB between the levels of the maximum and minimum one-third octave bands.

(d) Analysis equipment. (1) A frequency analysis of the acoustic signal must be performed using one-third octave filters which conform to the recommendations of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Publication No. 225, entitled "Octave, Half-Octave, and Third-Octave Band Filters Intended for Analysis of Sound and Vibrations," as incorporated by reference under 36.6 of this part.

(2) A set of 24 consecutive one-third octave filters must be used. The first filter of the set must be centered at a geometric mean frequency of 50 Hz and the last filter at 10,000 Hz. The output of each filter must contain less than 0.5 dB ripple.

(3) The analyzer indicating device may be either analog or digital, or a combination of both. The preferred sequence of signal processing is:

(i) Squaring the one-third octave filter outputs;

(ii) Averaging or integrating; and

(iii) Converting linear formulation to logarithmic.

(4) Each detector must operate over a minimum dynamic range of 60 dB and perform as a root-mean-square device for sinusoidal tone bursts having crest factors of at least 3 over the following dynamic range:

(i) Up to 30 dB below full-scale reading must be accurate within 0.5 dB;

(ii) Between 30 dB and 40 dB below full-scale reading must be accurate within 1.0 dB; and

(iii) In excess of 40 dB below full-scale reading must be accurate within 2.5 dB.

(5) The averaging properties of the integrator must be tested as follows:

(i) White noise must be passed through the 200 Hz one-third octave band filter and the output fed in turn to each detector/integrator. The standard deviation of the measured levels must then be determined from a statistically significant number of samples of the filtered white noise taken at intervals of not less than 5 seconds. The value of the standard deviation must be within the interval 0.480.06 dB for a probability limit of 95 percent. An approved equivalent method may be substituted for this test on those analyzers where the test signal cannot readily be fed directly to each detector/integrator.

(ii) For each detector/integrator, the response to a sudden onset or interruption of a constant amplitude sinusoidal signal at the respective one-third octave band center frequency must be measured at sampling times 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 seconds after the onset or interruption. The rising responses must be in the following amounts before the steady-state level:

0.5 seconds, 4.01.0 dB

1.0 seconds, 1.750.5 dB

1.5 seconds, 1.00.5 dB

2.0 seconds, 0.60.25 dB

(iii) The falling response must be such that the sum of the decibel readings below the initial steady-state level, and the corresponding rising response reading is         6.5 1.0 dB, at both 0.5 and 1.0 seconds and, on subsequent records, the sum of the onset plus decay must be greater than 7.5 decibels.

Note 1: For analyzers with linear detection, an approximation of this response would be given by:


 

SPL (i, k)-10 log  [0.17 (10[SU]0.1(Li,k-3)[/
                    SU])
                   +10.21 (0[SU]0.1(Li,k-2)[/
                    SU])
                   +0.24 (10[SU]0.1(Li,k-1)[/
                    SU])
                   +0.33 (10[SU]0.1(Li,k)[/
                    SU])]

When this approximation is used, the calibration signal should be established without this weighting.

Note 2: Some analyzers have been shown to have signal sampling rates that are insufficiently accurate to detect signals with crest factor ratios greater than three which is common to helicopter noise. Preferably, such analyzers should not be used for helicopter certification. Use of analysis systems with high signal sampling rates (greater than 40KHz) or those with analog detectors prior to digitization at the output of each one-third octave filter is encouraged.


 

(iv) Analyzers using true integration cannot meet the requirements of (i), (ii), and (iii) directly, because their overall average time is greater than the sampling interval. For these analyzers, compliance must be demonstrated in terms of the equivalent output of the data processor. Further, in cases where readout and resetting require a dead-time during acquisition, the percentage loss of the total data must not exceed one percent.

(6) The sampling interval between successive readouts shall not exceed 500 milliseconds and its precise value must be known to within 1 one percent. The instant in time by which a readout is characterized shall be the midpoint of the average period where the averaging period is defined as twice the effective time constant of the analyzer.

(7) The amplitude resolution of the analyzer must be at least 0.25 dB.

(8) After all systematic errors have been eliminated, each output level from the analyzer must be accurate within 1.0 dB of the level of the input signal. The total systematic errors for each of the output levels must not exceed 3.0 dB. For contiguous filter systems, the systematic corrections between adjacent one-third octave channels must not exceed 4.0 dB.

(9) The dynamic range capability of the analyzer to display a single aircraft noise event, in terms of the difference between full-scale output level and the maximum noise level of the analyzer equipment, must be at least 60 dB.

(e) Calibrations. (1) Within five days prior to beginning each test series, the complete electronic system, as installed in field including cables, must be electronically calibrated for frequency and amplitude by the use of a pink noise signal of known amplitudes covering the range of signal levels furnished by the microphone. For purposes of this section, "pink noise" means a noise whose noise-power/unit-frequency is inversely proportional to frequency at frequencies within the range of 44 Hz to 11,200 Hz. The signal used must be described in terms of its average root-mean-square (rms) values for a nonoverload signal level. This system calibration must be repeated within five days of the end of each test series, or as required by the FAA.

(2) Immediately before and after each day's testing, a recorded acoustic calibration of the system must be made in the field with an acoustic calibrator to check the system sensitivity and provide an acoustic reference level for the sound level data analysis. The performance of equipment in the system will be considered satisfactory if, during each day's testing, the variation in the calibration value does not exceed 0.5 dB.

(3) A normal incidence pressure calibration of the combined microphone/preamplifier must be performed with pure tones at each preferred one-third octave frequency from 50 Hz to 10,000 Hz. This calibration must be completed within 90 days prior to the beginning of each test series.

(4) Each reel of magnetic tape must:

(i) Be pistonphone calibrated; and

(ii) At its beginning and end, carry a calibration signal consisting of at least a 15 second burst of pink noise, as defined in paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(5) Data obtained from tape recorded signals are not considered reliable if the difference between the pink noise signal levels, before and after the tests in each one-third octave band, exceeds 0.75 dB.

(6) The one-third octave filters must have been demonstrated to be in conformity with the recommendations of IEC Publication 225 as incorporated by reference under 36.6 of this part, during the six calendar months preceding the beginning of each test series. However, the correction for effective bandwidth relative to the center frequency response may be determined for each filter by:

(i) Measuring the filter response to sinusoidal signals at a minimum of twenty frequencies equally spaced between the two adjacent preferred one-third octave frequencies; or

(ii) Using an FAA approved equivalent technique.

(7) A performance calibration analysis of each piece of calibration equipment, including pistonphones, reference microphones, and voltage insert devices, must have been made during the six calendar months preceding the beginning of each day's test series. Each calibration must be traceable to the National Bureau of Standards.

(f) Noise measurement procedures. (1) Each microphone must be oriented so that the diaphragm is substantially in the plane defined by the flight path of the aircraft and the measuring station. The microphone located at each noise measuring station must be placed so that its sensing element is approximately 4 feet above ground.

(2) Immediately before and immediately after each series of test runs and each day's testing, acoustic calibrations of the system prescribed in this section of this appendix must be recorded in the field to check the acoustic reference level for the analysis of the sound level data. Ambient noise must be recorded for at least 10 seconds and be representative of the acoustical background, including system noise, that exists during the flyover test run. During that recorded period, each component of the system must be set at the gain-levels used for aircraft noise measurement.

(3) The mean background noise spectrum must contain the sound pressure levels, which, in each preferred third octave band in the range of 50 Hz to 10,000 Hz, are the averages of the energy of the sound pressure levels in every preferred third octave. When analyzed in PNL, the resulting mean background noise level must be at least 20 PNdB below the maximum PNL of the helicopter.

(4) Corrections for recorded levels of background noise are allowed, within the limits prescribed in section H36.111(c)(3) of this appendix.

 

Section H36.111      Reporting and correcting measured data

(a) General. Data representing physical measurements, and corrections to measured data, including corrections to measurements for equipment response deviations, must be recorded in permanent form and appended to the record. Each correction must be reported and is subject to FAA approval. An estimate must be made of each individual error inherent in each of the operations employed in obtaining the final data.

(b) Data reporting. (1) Measured and corrected sound pressure levels must be presented in one-third octave band levels obtained with equipment conforming to the standards prescribed in section H36.109 of this appendix.

(2) The type of equipment used for measurement and analysis of all acoustic, aircraft performance, and meteorological data must be reported.

(3) The atmospheric environmental data required to demonstrate compliance with this appendix, measured throughout the test period, must be reported.

(4) Conditions of local topography, ground cover, or events which may interfere with sound recording must be reported.

(5) The following aircraft information must be reported:

(i) Type, model, and serial numbers, if any, of aircraft engines and rotors.

(ii) Gross dimensions of aircraft and location of engines.

(iii) Aircraft gross weight for each test run.

(iv) Aircraft configuration, including landing gear positions.

(v) Airspeed in knots.

(vi) Helicopter engine performance as determined from aircraft instruments and manufacturer's data.

(vii) Aircraft flight path, above ground level in feet, determined by an FAA approved method which is independent of normal flight instrumentation, such as radar tracking, theodolite triangulation, laser trajectography, or photographic scaling techniques.

(6) Aircraft speed, and position, and engine performance parameters must be recorded at an approved sampling rate sufficient to correct to the noise certification reference test conditions prescribed in section H36.3 of this appendix. Lateral position relative to the reference flight-track must be reported.

(c) Data corrections. (1) Aircraft position, performance data and noise measurement must be corrected to the noise certification reference conditions as prescribed in sections H36.3 and H36.205 of this appendix.

(2) The measured flight path must be corrected by an amount equal to the difference between the applicant's predicted flight path for the certification reference conditions and the measured flight path at the test conditions. Necessary corrections relating to aircraft flight path or performance may be derived from FAA-approved data for the difference between measured and reference engine conditions, together with appropriate allowances for sound attenuation with distance. The Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) correction must be less than 2.0 EPNdB for any combination of the following:

(i) The aircraft's not passing vertically above the measuring station.

(ii) Any difference between the reference flight-track and the actual minimum distance of the aircraft's ILS antenna from the approach measuring station.

(iii) Any difference between the actual approach angle and the noise certification reference approach flight path.

(iv) Any correction of the measured level flyover noise levels which accounts for any difference between the test engine thrust or power and the reference engine thrust or power.

Detailed correction requirements are prescribed in section H36.205 of this appendix.

(3) Aircraft sound pressure levels within the 10 dB-down points must exceed the mean background sound pressure levels determined under section A36.3.10.1 by at least 5 dB in each one-third octave band or be corrected under an FAA approved method to be included in the computation of the overall noise level of the aircraft. An EPNL may not be computed or reported from data from which more than four one-third octave bands in any spectrum within the 10 dB-down points have been excluded under this paragraph.

(d) Validity of results. (1) The test results must produce three average EPNL values within the 90 percent confidence limits, each value consisting of the arithmetic average of the corrected noise measurements for all valid test runs at the takeoff, level flyovers, and approach conditions. The 90 percent confidence limit applies separately to takeoff, flyover, and approach.

(2) The minimum sample size acceptable for each takeoff, approach, and flyover certification measurements is six. The number of samples must be large enough to establish statistically for each of the three average noise certification levels a 90 percent confidence limit which does not exceed 1.5 EPNdB. No test result may be omitted from the averaging process, unless otherwise specified by the FAA.

(3) To comply with this appendix, a minimum of six takeoffs, six approaches, and six level flyovers is required. To be counted toward this requirement, each flight event must be validly recorded at all three noise measuring stations.

(4) The approved values of VH and Vy used in calculating test and reference conditions and flight profiles must be reported along with measured and corrected sound pressure levels.

 

Section H36.113      Atmospheric attenuation of sound.

(a) The values of the one-third octave band spectra measured during helicopter noise certification tests under this appendix must conform, or be corrected, to the reference conditions prescribed in section H36.3(a). Each correction must account for any differences in the atmospheric attenuation of sound between the test-day conditions and the reference-day conditions along the sound propagation path between the aircraft and the microphone. Unless the meteorological conditions are within the test window prescribed in this appendix, the test data are not acceptable.

(b) Attenuation rates. The atmospheric attenuation rates of sound with distance for each one-third octave band from 50 Hz to 10,000 Hz must be determined in accordance with the formulations and tabulations of SAE ARP 866A, entitled "Standard Values of Atmospheric Absorption as a Function of Temperatures and Humidity for Use in Evaluating Aircraft Flyover Noise", as incorporated by reference under 36.6 of this part.

(c) Correction for atmospheric attenuation. (1) EPNL values calculated for measured data must be corrected whenever --

(i) The ambient atmospheric conditions of temperature and relative humidity do not conform to the reference conditions, 77 F and 70%, respectively, or

(ii) The measured flight paths do not conform to the reference flight paths.

(iii) The temperature and relative humidity measured at aircraft altitude and at 10 meters above the ground shall be averaged and used to adjust for propagation path absorption.

(2) The mean attenuation rate over the complete sound propagation path from the aircraft to the microphone must be computed for each one-third octave band from 50 Hz to 10,000 Hz. These rates must be used in computing the corrections required in section H36.111(d) of this appendix.

PART C -- NOISE EVALUATION AND CALCULATION UNDER 36.803

 

Section H36.201      Noise Evaluation in EPNdB.

(a) Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL), in units of effective perceived noise decibels (EPNdB), shall be used for evaluating noise level values under 36.803 of this part. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the procedures in appendix A of Part 36 must be used for computing EPNL. appendix B includes requirements governing determination of noise values, including calculations of:

(1) Instantaneous perceived noise levels;

(2) Corrections for spectral irregularities;

(3) Tone corrections;

(4) Duration corrections;

(5) Effective perceived noise levels; and

(6) Mathematical formulation of noy tables.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of section A36.4.3.1(a), for helicopter noise certification, corrections for spectral irregularities shall start with the corrected sound pressure level in the 50 Hz one-third octave band.

 

Section H36.203      Calculation of noise levels.

(a) To demonstrate compliance with the noise level limits of section H36.305, the noise values measured simultaneously at the three noise measuring points must be arithmetically averaged to obtain a single EPNdB value for each flight.

(b) The calculated noise level for each noise test series, i.e., takeoff, flyover, or approach must be the numerical average of at least six separate flight EPNdB values. The 90 percent confidence limit for all valid test runs under section H36.111(d) of this appendix applies separately to the EPNdB values for each noise test series.

 

Section H36.205      Detailed data correction procedures

(a) General. If the test conditions do not conform to those prescribed as noise certification reference conditions under section H36.305 of this appendix, the following correction procedure shall apply:

(1) If a positive value results from any difference between reference and test conditions, an appropriate positive correction must be made to the EPNL calculated from the measured data. Conditions which can result in a positive value include:

(i) Atmospheric absorption of sound under test conditions which is greater than the reference;

(ii) Test flight path at an altitude which is higher than the reference; or

(iii) Test weight which is less than maximum certification weight.

(2) If a negative value results from any difference between reference and test conditions, no correction may be made to the EPNL calculated from the measured data, unless the difference results from:

(i) An atmospheric absorption of sound under test conditions which is less than the reference; or

(ii) A test flight path at an altitude which is lower than the reference.

(3) The following correction procedures may produce one or more possible correction values which must be added algebraically to the calculated EPNL to bring it to reference conditions:

(i) The flight profiles must be determined for both reference and test conditions. The procedures require noise and flight path recording with a synchronized time signal from which the test profile can be delineated, including the aircraft position for which PNLTM is observed at the noise measuring station. For takeoff, the flight profile corrected to reference conditions may be derived from FAA approved manufacturer's data.

(ii) The sound propagation paths to the microphone from the aircraft position corresponding to PNLTM are determined for both the test and reference profiles. The SPL values in the spectrum of PNLTM must then be corrected for the effects of --

(A) Change in atmospheric sound absorption;

(B) Atmospheric sound absorption on the linear difference between the two sound path lengths; and

(C) Inverse square law on the difference in sound propagation path length. The corrected values of SPL are then converted to PNLTM from which PNLTM must be subtracted. The resulting difference represents the correction which must be added algebraically to the EPNL calculated from the measured data.

(iii) The minimum distances from both the test and reference profiles to the noise measuring station must be calculated and used to determine a noise duration correction due to any change in the altitude of aircraft flyover. The duration correction must be added algebraically to the EPNL calculated from the measured data.

(iv) From FAA approved data in the form of curves or tables giving the variation of EPNL with rotor rpm and test speed, corrections are determined and must be added to the EPNL, which is calculated from the measured data to account for noise level changes due to differences between test conditions and reference conditions.

(v) From FAA approved data in the form of curves or tables giving the variation of EPNL with approach angle, corrections are determined and must be added algebraically to the EPNL, which is calculated from measured data, to account for noise level changes due to differences between the 6 degree and the test approach angle.

(b) Takeoff profiles. (1) Figure H1 illustrates a typical takeoff profile, including reference conditions.

(i) The reference takeoff flight path is described in section H36.3(c).

(ii) The test parameters are functions of the helicopter's performance and weight and the atmospheric conditions of temperature, pressure, wind velocity and direction.

(2) For the actual takeoff, the helicopter approaches position C in level flight at 65 feet (20 meters) above ground level at the flight track noise measuring station and at either Vy5 knots (9 km/hr) or the maximum speed of the curve tangential at the ordinate of the height-speed envelope plus 3.0 knots (5 knots), whichever speed is greater. Rotor speed is stabilized at the normal operating RPM (1 percent), specified in the flight manual. The helicopter is stabilized in level flight at the speed for best rate of climb using minimum engine specifications (power or torque and rpm) along a path starting from a point located 1640 feet (500 meters) forward of the flight-track noise measuring station and 65 feet (20 meters) above the ground. Starting at point B, the helicopter climbs through point C to the end of the noise certification takeoff flight path represented by position I. The position of point C may vary within limits allowed by the FAA. The position of the helicopter shall be recorded for a distance (CI) sufficient to ensure recording of the entire interval during which the measured helicopter noise level is within 10 dB of PNLTM, as required by this rule. Station A is the flight-track noise measuring station. The relationships between the measured and corrected takeoff flight profiles can be used to determine the corrections which must be applied to the EPNL calculated from the measured data.

(3) Figure H1 also illustrates the significant geometrical relationships influencing sound propagation. Position L represents the helicopter location on the measured takeoff flight path from which PNLTM is observed at station A, and Lr is the A and Nρ corresponding position on the reference sound propagation path. AL and ALr both form the angle Φ with their respective flight paths. Position T represents the point on the measured takeoff flight path nearest station A, and Tr is the corresponding position on the reference flight path. The minimum distance to the measured and reference flight paths are indicated by the lines AT and ATr, respectively, which are normal to their flight paths.

(c) Level flyover profiles. (1) The noise type certification level flyover profile is shown in Figure H2. Airspeed must be stabilized within 5 knots of the reference airspeed given in section H36.3(d). For each run, the difference between airspeed and ground speed shall not exceed 10 knots between the 10 dB down points. Rotor speed must be stabilized at the maximum continuous RPM within one percent, throughout the 10 dB down time period. If the test requirements are otherwise met, flight direction may be reversed for each subsequent flyover, to obtain three test runs in each direction.

 

(2) Figure H2 illustrates comparative flyover profiles when test conditions do not conform to prescribed reference conditions. The position of the helicopter shall be recorded for a distance (DJ) sufficient to ensure recording of the entire interval during which the measured helicopter noise level is within 10 dB of PNLTM, as required. The flyover profile is defined by the height AG which is a function of the operating conditions controlled by the pilot. Position M represents the helicopter location on the measured flyover flight path for which PNLTM is observed at station A, and Mr is the corresponding position on the reference flight path.

(d) Approach profiles. (1) Figure H3 illustrates a typical approach profile, including reference conditions.

(2) The helicopter approaches position H along a 6 (0.5) average approach slope throughout the 10 dB down period. The approach procedure shall be acceptable to the FAA and shall be included in the Flight Manual.

(3) Figure H3 illustrates portions of the measured and reference approach flight paths including the significant geometrical relationships influencing sound propagation. EK represents the measured approach path with approach angle η, and Er and Kr represent the reference approach angle of 6. Position N represents the helicopter location on the measured approach flight path for which PNLTM is observed at station A, and Nr is the corresponding position on the reference approach flight path. The measured and corrected noise propagation paths are AN and ANr, respectively, both of which form the same angle with their flight paths. Position S represents the point on the measured approach flight path nearest station A, and Sr is the corresponding point on the reference approach flight path. The minimum distance to the measured and reference flight paths are indicated by the lines AS and ASr, respectively, which are normal to their flight paths.

 

(e) Correction of noise at source during level flyover. (1) For level overflight, if any combination of the following three factors, 1) airspeed deviation from reference, 2) rotor speed deviation from reference, and 3) temperature deviation from reference, results in an advancing blade tip Mach number which deviates from the reference Mach value, then source noise adjustments shall be determined. This adjustment shall be determined from the manufacturer supplied data approved by the FAA.

(2) Off-reference tip Mach number adjustments shall be based upon a sensitivity curve of PNLTM versus advancing blade tip Mach number, deduced from overflights carried out at different airspeeds around the reference airspeed. If the test aircraft is unable to attain the reference value, then an extrapolation of the sensitivity curve is permitted if data cover at least a range of 0.3 Mach units. The advancing blade tip Mach number shall be computed using true airspeed, onboard outside air temperature, and rotor speed. A separate PNLTM versus advancing blade tip Mach number function shall be derived for each of the three certification microphone locations, i.e., centerline, sideline left, and sideline right. Sideline left and right are defined relative to the direction of the flight on each run. PNLTM adjustments are to be applied to each microphone datum using the appropriate PNLTM function.

(f) PNLT corrections. If the ambient atmospheric conditions of temperature and relative humidity are not those prescribed as reference conditions under this appendix (77 degrees F and 70 percent, respectively), corrections to the EPNL values must be calculated from the measured data under paragraph (a) of this section as follows:

(1) Takeoff flight path. For the takeoff flight path shown in Figure H1, the spectrum of PNLTM observed at station A for the aircraft at position Lr is decomposed into its individual SPLi values.

(i) Step 1. A set of corrected values are then computed as follows:

            SPLic=SPLi+(α i−α io)AL

+(α io)AL−ALr)

+20 log(AL/ALr)

Where SPLi and SPLic are the measured and corrected sound pressure levels, respectively, in the i-th one-third octave band. The first correction term accounts for the effects of change in atmospheric sound absorption where ai and aio are the sound absorption coefficients for the test and reference atmospheric conditions, respectively, for the -ith one-third octave band and Lr A is the measured takeoff sound propagation path. The second correction term accounts for the effects of atmospheric sound absorption on the change in the sound propagation path length where Lr A is the corrected takeoff sound propagation path. The third correction term accounts for the effects of the inverse square law on the change in the sound propagation path length.

(ii) Step 2. The corrected values of the SPLic are then converted to PNLT and a correction term calculated as follows:

Δ1=PNLT−PNLTM

Which represents the correction to be added algebraically to the EPNL calculated from the measured data.

(2) Approach flight path. (i) The procedure described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section for takeoff flight paths is also used for the approach flight path, except that the value for SPLic relate to the approach sound propagation paths shown in Figure H3 as follows:

SPLic=SPLi+(α-α io) AM+

α(AM−AMr)+20 log(AM/AMr)

Where the lines NS and Nr Sr are the measured and referenced approach sound propagation paths, respectively.

(ii) The remainder of the procedure is the same as that prescribed in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, regarding takeoff flight path.

(3) Sideline microphones. The procedure prescribed in paragraph (f)(1) of this section for takeoff flight paths is also used for the propagation to the sideline microphones, except that the values of SPLic relate only in the measured sideline sound propagation path as follows:

SPLic-SPLi + (α io−α+io)KX

+α io(KX−KXr)+20 log(KX/KXr)

K is the sideline measuring station where

X=L and Xr=Ln for takeoff

X=M and Xr=Mn for approach

X=N and Xr=Nr for flyover

(4) Level flyover flight path. The procedure prescribed in paragraph (f)(1) of this section for takeoff flight paths is also used for the level flyover flight path, except that the values of SPLic relate only to the flyover sound propagation paths as follows:

SPLic=SPLi+(α-α io) AN + α io (AN−ANr)+20 log (AN/ANr)

(g) Duration corrections. (1) If the measured takeoff and approach flight paths do not conform to those prescribed as the corrected and reference flight paths, respectively, under section A36.5(d)(2) it will be necessary to apply duration corrections to the EPNL values calculated from the measured data. Such corrections must be calculated as follows:

(i) Takeoff flight path. For the takeoff flight path shown in Figure H1, the correction term is calculated using the formula --

Δ2=−10 log (AT/ATr) + 10 log (V/Vr)

which represents the correction which must be added algebraically to the EPNL calculated from the measured data. The lengths AT and ATr are the measured and corrected takeoff minimum distances from the noise measuring station A to the measured and the corrected flight paths, respectively. A negative sign indicates that, for the particular case of a duration correction, the EPNL calculated from the measured data must be reduced if the measured flight path is at greater altitude than the corrected flight path.

(ii) Approach flight path. For the approach flight path shown in Figure H3, the correction term is calculated using the formula --

Δ2=−10 log (AS/ASr) + 10 log (V/Vr)

where AS is the measured approach minimum distance from the noise measuring station A to the measured flight path and 394 feet is the minimum distance from station A to the reference flight path.

(iii) Sideline microphones. For the sideline flight path, the correction term is calculated using the formula --

Δ2=−10 log (KX/KXr)+10 log (V/Vr)

K is the sideline measuring station

where X=T and Xr=Tr for takeoff

where X=S and Xr=Sr for approach

where X=G and Xr=Gr for flyover

(iv) Level flyover flight paths. For the level flyover flight path, the correction term is calculated using the formula --

Δ2=−10 log (AG/AGr)+10 log (V/Vr)

where AG is the measured flyover altitude over the noise measuring station A.

(2) The adjustment procedure described in this section shall apply to the sideline microphones in the take-off, overflight, and approach cases. Although the noise emission is strongly dependent on the directivity pattern, variable from one helicopter type to another, the propagation angle &thetas; shall be the same for test and reference flight paths. The elevation angle ψ shall not be constrained but must be determined and reported. The certification authority shall specify the acceptable limitations on ψ. Corrections to data obtained when these limits are exceeded shall be applied using FAA approved procedures.

PART D -- NOISE LIMITS UNDER 36.805

 

Section H36.301      Noise measurement, evaluation, and calculation

Compliance with this part of this appendix must be shown with noise levels measured, evaluated, and calculated as prescribed under Parts B and C of this appendix.

 

Section H36.303 [RESERVED]

 

Section H36.305      Noise levels

(a) Limits. For compliance with this appendix, it must be shown by flight test that the calculated noise levels of the helicopter, at the measuring points described in section H36.305(a) of this appendix, do not exceed the following, with appropriate interpolation between weights:

(1) Stage 1 noise limits for acoustical changes for helicopters are as follows:

(i) For takeoff, flyover, and approach calculated noise levels, the noise levels of each Stage 1 helicopter that exceed the Stage 2 noise limits plus 2 EPNdB may not, after a change in type design, exceed the noise levels created prior to the change in type design.

(ii) For takeoff, flyover, and approach calculated noise levels, the noise levels of each Stage 1 helicopter that do not exceed the Stage 2 noise limits plus 2 EPNdB may not, after the change in type design, exceed the Stage 2 noise limits plus 2 EPNdB.

(2) Stage 2 noise limits are as follows:

(i) For takeoff calculated noise levels -- 109 EPNdB for maximum takeoff weights of 176,370 pounds or more, reduced by 3.01 EPNdB per halving of the weight down to 89 EPNdB for maximum weights of 1,764 pounds or less.

(ii) For flyover calculated noise levels -- 108 EPNdB for maximum weights of 176,370 pounds or more, reduced by 3.01 EPNdB per halving of the weight down to 88 EPNdB for maximum weights of 1,764 pounds or less.

(iii) For approach calculated noise levels -- 110 EPNdB for maximum weights of 176,370 pounds or more, reduced by 3.01 EPNdB per halving of the weight down 90 EPNdB for maximum weight of 1,764 pounds or less.

(b) Tradeoffs. Except to the extent limited under 36.11(b) of this part, the noise limits prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section may be exceeded by one or two of the takeoff, flyover, or approach calculated noise levels determined under section H36.203 of this appendix if

(1) The sum of the exceedances is not greater than 4 EPNdB;

(2) No exceedance is greater than 3 EPNdB; and

(3) The exceedances are completely offset by reduction in the other required calculated noise levels.

[Amdt. 36-14, 53 FR 3541, Feb. 5, 1988; 53 FR 4099, Feb. 11, 1988; 53 FR 7728, Mar. 10, 1988, as amended by Amdt. 36-54, 67 FR 45237, July 8, 2002]