**Sec. 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.**
(a) Water reaction load factors nw
must be computed in the following manner:

(1) For the step landing case
$$

(2) For the bow and stern landing cases
$$

(b) The following values are used:

(1) nw=water reaction load
factor (that is, the water reaction divided by seaplane weight).

(2) C1=empirical seaplane
operations factor equal to 0.012 (except that this factor may not be less
than that necessary to obtain the minimum value of step load factor of
2.33).

(3) VSO=seaplane stalling
speed in knots with flaps extended in the appropriate landing position and
with no slipstream effect.

(4) β=Angle of dead rise at the
longitudinal station at which the load factor is being determined in
accordance with figure 1 of appendix I of this part.

(5) W=seaplane landing weight in pounds.

(6) K1=empirical hull
station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix I of this
part.

(7) rx=ratio of distance,
measured parallel to hull reference axis, from the center of gravity of
the seaplane to the hull longitudinal station at which the load factor is
being computed to the radius of gyration in pitch of the seaplane, the
hull reference axis being a straight line, in the plane of symmetry,
tangential to the keel at the main step.

(c) For a twin float seaplane, because
of the effect of flexibility of the attachment of the floats to the
seaplane, the factor K1 may be reduced at the bow and stern to
0.8 of the value shown in figure 2 of appendix I of this part. This
reduction applies only to the design of the carrythrough and seaplane
structure.