Sec. 23.777 - Cockpit controls.
(a) Each cockpit control must be located
and (except where its function is obvious) identified to provide
convenient operation and to prevent confusion and inadvertent operation.
(b) The controls must be located and
arranged so that the pilot, when seated, has full and unrestricted
movement of each control without interference from either his clothing or
the cockpit structure.
(c) Powerplant controls must be located
(1) For multiengine airplanes, on the
pedestal or overhead at or near the center of the cockpit;
(2) For single and tandem seated
single-engine airplanes, on the left side console or instrument panel;
(3) For other single-engine airplanes at
or near the center of the cockpit, on the pedestal, instrument panel, or
(4) For airplanes, with side-by-side
pilot seats and with two sets of powerplant controls, on left and right
(d) The control location order from left
to right must be power (thrust) lever, propeller (rpm control), and
mixture control (condition lever and fuel cutoff for turbine-powered
airplanes). Power (thrust) levers must be at least one inch higher or
longer to make them more prominent than propeller (rpm control) or mixture
controls. Carburetor heat or alternate air control must be to the left of
the throttle or at least eight inches from the mixture control when
located other than on a pedestal. Carburetor heat or alternate air
control, when located on a pedestal must be aft or below the power
(thrust) lever. Supercharger controls must be located below or aft of the
propeller controls. Airplanes with tandem seating or single-place
airplanes may utilize control locations on the left side of the cabin
compartment; however, location order from left to right must be power
(thrust) lever, propeller (rpm control) and mixture control.
(e) Identical powerplant controls for
each engine must be located to prevent confusion as to the engines they
(1) Conventional multiengine powerplant
controls must be located so that the left control(s) operates the left
engines(s) and the right control(s) operates the right engine(s).
(2) On twin-engine airplanes with front
and rear engine locations (tandem), the left powerplant controls must
operate the front engine and the right powerplant controls must operate
the rear engine.
(f) Wing flap and auxiliary lift device
controls must be located --
(1) Centrally, or to the right of the
pedestal or powerplant throttle control centerline; and
(2) Far enough away from the landing
gear control to avoid confusion.
(g) The landing gear control must be
located to the left of the throttle centerline or pedestal centerline.
(h) Each fuel feed selector control must
comply with §23.995 and be located and arranged so that the pilot can see
and reach it without moving any seat or primary flight control when his
seat is at any position in which it can be placed.
(1) For a mechanical fuel selector:
(i) The indication of the selected fuel
valve position must be by means of a pointer and must provide positive
identification and feel (detent, etc.) of the selected position.
(ii) The position indicator pointer must
be located at the part of the handle that is the maximum dimension of the
handle measured from the center of rotation.
(2) For electrical or electronic fuel
(i) Digital controls or electrical
switches must be properly labelled.
(ii) Means must be provided to indicate
to the flight crew the tank or function selected. Selector switch position
is not acceptable as a means of indication. The "off" or "closed" position
must be indicated in red.
(3) If the fuel valve selector handle or
electrical or digital selection is also a fuel shut-off selector, the off
position marking must be colored red. If a separate emergency shut-off
means is provided, it also must be colored red.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 23-7, 34 FR 13092, Aug. 13, 1969; Amdt. 23-33, 51 FR
26656, July 24, 1986; Amdt. 23-51, 61 FR 5136, Feb. 9, 1996]