Sec. 23.807 - Emergency exits.
(a) Number and location.
Emergency exits must be located to allow escape without crowding in any
probable crash attitude. The airplane must have at least the following
(1) For all airplanes with a seating
capacity of two or more, excluding airplanes with canopies, at least one
emergency exit on the opposite side of the cabin from the main door
specified in §23.783 of this part.
(3) If the pilot compartment is
separated from the cabin by a door that is likely to block the pilot's
escape in a minor crash, there must be an exit in the pilot's compartment.
The number of exits required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section must then
be separately determined for the passenger compartment, using the seating
capacity of that compartment.
(4) Emergency exits must not be located
with respect to any propeller disk or any other potential hazard so as to
endanger persons using that exit.
(b) Type and operation. Emergency
exits must be movable windows, panels, canopies, or external doors,
openable from both inside and outside the airplane, that provide a clear
and unobstructed opening large enough to admit a 19-by-26-inch ellipse.
Auxiliary locking devices used to secure the airplane must be designed to
be overridden by the normal internal opening means. The inside handles of
emergency exits that open outward must be adequately protected against
inadvertent operation. In addition, each emergency exit must --
(1) Be readily accessible, requiring no
exceptional agility to be used in emergencies;
(2) Have a method of opening that is
simple and obvious;
(3) Be arranged and marked for easy
location and operation, even in darkness;
(4) Have reasonable provisions against
jamming by fuselage deformation; and
(5) In the case of acrobatic category
airplanes, allow each occupant to abandon the airplane at any speed
between VSO and VD; and
(6) In the case of utility category
airplanes certificated for spinning, allow each occupant to abandon the
airplane at the highest speed likely to be achieved in the maneuver for
which the airplane is certificated.
(c) Tests. The proper functioning
of each emergency exit must be shown by tests.
(d) Doors and exits. In addition,
for commuter category airplanes, the following requirements apply:
(1) In addition to the passenger entry
(i) For an airplane with a total
passenger seating capacity of 15 or fewer, an emergency exit, as defined
in paragraph (b) of this section, is required on each side of the cabin;
(ii) For an airplane with a total
passenger seating capacity of 16 through 19, three emergency exits, as
defined in paragraph (b) of this section, are required with one on the
same side as the passenger entry door and two on the side opposite the
(2) A means must be provided to lock
each emergency exit and to safeguard against its opening in flight, either
inadvertently by persons or as a result of mechanical failure. In
addition, a means for direct visual inspection of the locking mechanism
must be provided to determine that each emergency exit for which the
initial opening movement is outward is fully locked.
(3) Each required emergency exit, except
floor level exits, must be located over the wing or, if not less than six
feet from the ground, must be provided with an acceptable means to assist
the occupants to descend to the ground. Emergency exits must be
distributed as uniformly as practical, taking into account passenger
(4) Unless the applicant has complied
with paragraph (d)(1) of this section, there must be an emergency exit on
the side of the cabin opposite the passenger entry door, provided that --
(i) For an airplane having a passenger
seating configuration of nine or fewer, the emergency exit has a
rectangular opening measuring not less than 19 inches by 26 inches high
with corner radii not greater than one-third the width of the exit,
located over the wing, with a step up inside the airplane of not more than
29 inches and a step down outside the airplane of not more than 36 inches;
(ii) For an airplane having a passenger
seating configuration of 10 to 19 passengers, the emergency exit has a
rectangular opening measuring not less than 20 inches wide by 36 inches
high, with corner radii not greater than one-third the width of the exit,
and with a step up inside the airplane of not more than 20 inches. If the
exit is located over the wing, the step down outside the airplane may not
exceed 27 inches; and
(iii) The airplane complies with the
additional requirements of §§23.561(b)(2)(iv), 23.803(b), 23.811(c),
23.812, 23.813(b), and 23.815.
(e) For multiengine airplanes, ditching
emergency exits must be provided in accordance with the following
requirements, unless the emergency exits required by paragraph (a) or (d)
of this section already comply with them:
(1) One exit above the waterline on each
side of the airplane having the dimensions specified in paragraph (b) or
(d) of this section, as applicable; and
(2) If side exits cannot be above the
waterline, there must be a readily accessible overhead hatch emergency
exit that has a rectangular opening measuring not less than 20 inches wide
by 36 inches long, with corner radii not greater than one-third the width
of the exit.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 23-7, 34 FR 13092, Aug. 13, 1969; Amdt. 23-10, 36 FR
2864, Feb. 11, 1971; Amdt. 23-34, 52 FR 1831, Jan. 15, 1987; Amdt. 23-36,
53 FR 30814, Aug. 15, 1988; 53 FR 34194, Sept. 2, 1988; Amdt. 23-46, 59 FR
25773, May 17, 1994; Amdt. 23-49, 61 FR 5167, Feb. 9, 1996]