Sec. 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

The following are required powerplant instruments:

(a) For all airplanes. (1) A fuel quantity indicator for each fuel tank, installed in accordance with 23.1337(b).

(2) An oil pressure indicator for each engine.

(3) An oil temperature indicator for each engine.

(4) An oil quantity measuring device for each oil tank which meets the requirements of 23.1337(d).

(5) A fire warning means for those airplanes required to comply with 23.1203.

(b) For reciprocating engine-powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraph (a) of this section, the following powerplant instruments are required:

(1) An induction system air temperature indicator for each engine equipped with a preheater and having induction air temperature limitations that can be exceeded with preheat.

(2) A tachometer indicator for each engine.

(3) A cylinder head temperature indicator for --

(i) Each air-cooled engine with cowl flaps;

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) Each commuter category airplane.

(4) For each pump-fed engine, a means:

(i) That continuously indicates, to the pilot, the fuel pressure or fuel flow; or

(ii) That continuously monitors the fuel system and warns the pilot of any fuel flow trend that could lead to engine failure.

(5) A manifold pressure indicator for each altitude engine and for each engine with a controllable propeller.

(6) For each turbocharger installation:

(i) If limitations are established for either carburetor (or manifold) air inlet temperature or exhaust gas or turbocharger turbine inlet temperature, indicators must be furnished for each temperature for which the limitation is established unless it is shown that the limitation will not be exceeded in all intended operations.

(ii) If its oil system is separate from the engine oil system, oil pressure and oil temperature indicators must be provided.

(7) A coolant temperature indicator for each liquid-cooled engine.

(c) For turbine engine-powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraph (a) of this section, the following powerplant instruments are required:

(1) A gas temperature indicator for each engine.

(2) A fuel flowmeter indicator for each engine.

(3) A fuel low pressure warning means for each engine.

(4) A fuel low level warning means for any fuel tank that should not be depleted of fuel in normal operations.

(5) A tachometer indicator (to indicate the speed of the rotors with established limiting speeds) for each engine.

(6) An oil low pressure warning means for each engine.

(7) An indicating means to indicate the functioning of the powerplant ice protection system for each engine.

(8) For each engine, an indicating means for the fuel strainer or filter required by 23.997 to indicate the occurrence of contamination of the strainer or filter before it reaches the capacity established in accordance with 23.997(d).

(9) For each engine, a warning means for the oil strainer or filter required by 23.1019, if it has no bypass, to warn the pilot of the occurrence of contamination of the strainer or filter screen before it reaches the capacity established in accordance with 23.1019(a)(5).

(10) An indicating means to indicate the functioning of any heater used to prevent ice clogging of fuel system components.

(d) For turbojet/turbofan engine-powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraphs (a) and (c) of this section, the following powerplant instruments are required:

(1) For each engine, an indicator to indicate thrust or to indicate a parameter that can be related to thrust, including a free air temperature indicator if needed for this purpose.

(2) For each engine, a position indicating means to indicate to the flight crew when the thrust reverser, if installed, is in the reverse thrust position.

(e) For turbopropeller-powered airplanes. In addition to the powerplant instruments required by paragraphs (a) and (c) of this section, the following powerplant instruments are required:

(1) A torque indicator for each engine.

(2) A position indicating means to indicate to the flight crew when the propeller blade angle is below the flight low pitch position, for each propeller, unless it can be shown that such occurrence is highly improbable.

[Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18975, Apr. 9, 1993; 58 FR 27060, May 6, 1993; Amdt. 23-51, 61 FR 5138, Feb. 9, 1996; Amdt. 23-52, 61 FR 13644, Mar. 27, 1996]