Airport Advisory/Information Services
There are three advisory type services
available at selected airports.
Local Airport Advisory (LAA) service is
operated within 10 statute miles of an airport where a
control tower is not operating but where a FSS is
located on the airport. At such locations, the FSS
provides a complete local airport advisory service to
arriving and departing aircraft. During periods of fast
changing weather the FSS will automatically provide
Final Guard as part of the service from the time the
aircraft reports "on-final" or
"taking-the-active-runway" until the aircraft reports
"on-the-ground" or "airborne."
Current policy, when requesting remote ATC services,
requires that a pilot monitor the automated weather
broadcast at the landing airport prior to requesting ATC
services. The FSS automatically provides Final Guard,
when appropriate, during LAA/Remote Airport Advisory (RAA)
operations. Final Guard is a value added wind/altimeter
monitoring service, which provides an automatic wind and
altimeter check during active weather situations when
the pilot reports on-final or taking the active runway.
During the landing or take-off operation when the winds
or altimeter are actively changing the FSS will blind
broadcast significant changes when the specialist
believes the change might affect the operation. Pilots
should acknowledge the first wind/altimeter check but
due to cockpit activity no acknowledgement is expected
for the blind broadcasts. It is prudent for a pilot to
report on-the-ground or airborne to end the service.
RAA service is operated within 10 statute
miles of specified high activity GA airports where a
control tower is not operating. Airports offering this
service are listed in the A/FD and the published service
hours may be changed by NOTAM D. Final Guard is
automatically provided with RAA.
Remote Airport Information Service (RAIS)
is provided in support of short term special events like
small to medium fly-in's. The service is advertised by
NOTAM D only. The FSS will not have access to a
continuous readout of the current winds and altimeter;
therefore, RAIS does not include weather and/or Final
Guard service. However, known traffic, special event
instructions, and all other services are provided.
The airport authority and/or manager should request RAIS
support on official letterhead directly with the manager
of the FSS that will provide the service at least 60
days in advance. Approval authority rests with the FSS
manager and is based on workload and resource
AIM, Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without
Operating Control Towers, Paragraph 4-1-9.
It is not mandatory that pilots participate
in the Airport Advisory programs. Participation enhances
safety for everyone operating around busy GA airports;
therefore, everyone is encouraged to participate and
provide feedback that will help improve the program.
National security depends largely on the
deterrent effect of our airborne military forces. To be
proficient, the military services must train in a wide
range of airborne tactics. One phase of this training
involves "low level" combat tactics. The required
manoeuvres and high speeds are such that they may
occasionally make the see-and-avoid aspect of VFR flight
more difficult without increased vigilance in areas
containing such operations. In an effort to ensure the
greatest practical level of safety for all flight
operations, the Military Training Route (MTR) program was
The MTR program is a joint venture by the
FAA and the Department of Defence (DOD). MTR's are
mutually developed for use by the military for the purpose
of conducting low-altitude, high-speed training. The
routes above 1,500 feet AGL are developed to be flown, to
the maximum extent possible, under IFR. The routes at
1,500 feet AGL and below are generally developed to be
flown under VFR.
Generally, MTR's are established below
10,000 feet MSL for operations at speeds in excess of 250
knots. However, route segments may be defined at higher
altitudes for purposes of route continuity. For example,
route segments may be defined for descent, climbout, and
mountainous terrain. There are IFR and VFR routes as
1. IFR Military
Operations on these routes are conducted in accordance
with IFR regardless of weather conditions.
2. VFR Military
Operations on these routes are conducted in accordance
with VFR except flight visibility shall be 5 miles or
more; and flights shall not be conducted below a ceiling
of less than 3,000 feet AGL.
Military training routes will be identified
and charted as follows:
MTR's with no segment above 1,500 feet
AGL shall be identified by four number characters;
e.g., IR1206, VR1207.
MTR's that include one or more segments
above 1,500 feet AGL shall be identified by three
number characters; e.g., IR206, VR207.
Alternate IR/VR routes or route
segments are identified by using the basic/principal
route designation followed by a letter suffix, e.g.,
IR008A, VR1007B, etc.
2. Route charting.
(a) IFR Low Altitude
En Route Chart.
will depict all IR routes and all VR routes that
accommodate operations above 1,500 feet AGL.
(b) VFR Sectional
Charts. These charts will
depict military training activities such as IR, VR,
MOA, Restricted Area, Warning Area, and Alert Area
(c) Area Planning
(AP/1B) Chart (DOD Flight Information
chart is published by the DOD primarily for military
users and contains detailed information on both IR and
AIM, National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA),
9-1-5, Subparagraph a.
The FLIP contains charts and narrative
descriptions of these routes. This publication is
available to the general public by single copy or annual
NACO Distribution Division,
Federal Aviation Administration
6501 Lafayette Avenue
Riverdale, MD 20737-1199
Toll free phone: 1-800-638-8972
This DOD FLIP is available
for pilot briefings at FSS and many airports.
Nonparticipating aircraft are not
prohibited from flying within an MTR; however, extreme
vigilance should be exercised when conducting flight
through or near these routes. Pilots should contact FSS's
within 100 NM of a particular MTR to obtain current
information or route usage in their vicinity. Information
available includes times of scheduled activity, altitudes
in use on each route segment, and actual route width.
Route width varies for each MTR and can extend several
miles on either side of the charted MTR centerline. Route
width information for IR and VR MTR's is also available in
the FLIP AP/1B along with additional MTR (slow routes/air
refueling routes) information. When requesting MTR
information, pilots should give the FSS their position,
route of flight, and destination in order to reduce
frequency congestion and permit the FSS specialist to
identify the MTR which could be a factor.
Temporary Flight Restrictions
This paragraph describes the types of
conditions under which the FAA may impose temporary flight
restrictions. It also explains which FAA elements have
been delegated authority to issue a temporary flight
restrictions NOTAM and lists the types of responsible
agencies/offices from which the FAA will accept requests
to establish temporary flight restrictions. The 14 CFR is
explicit as to what operations are prohibited, restricted,
or allowed in a temporary flight restrictions area. Pilots
are responsible to comply with 14 CFR Sections 91.137,
91.138, 91.141 and 91.143 when conducting flight in an
area where a temporary flight restrictions area is in
effect, and should check appropriate NOTAM's during flight
b. The purpose for
establishing a temporary flight restrictions area is to:
Protect persons and property in the air
or on the surface from an existing or imminent hazard
associated with an incident on the surface when the
presence of low flying aircraft would magnify, alter,
spread, or compound that hazard (14 CFR Section
Provide a safe environment for the
operation of disaster relief aircraft (14 CFR Section
Prevent an unsafe congestion of
sightseeing aircraft above an incident or event which
may generate a high degree of public interest (14 CFR
Protect declared national disasters for
humanitarian reasons in the State of Hawaii (14 CFR
Protect the President, Vice President, or
other public figures (14 CFR Section 91.141).
Provide a safe environment for space
agency operations (14 CFR Section 91.143).
Except for hijacking situations, when the
provisions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) or (a)(2) are
necessary, a temporary flight restrictions area will only
be established by or through the area manager at the Air
Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) having jurisdiction
over the area concerned. A temporary flight restrictions
NOTAM involving the conditions of 14 CFR Section
91.137(a)(3) will be issued at the direction of the
regional air traffic division manager having oversight of
the airspace concerned. When hijacking situations are
involved, a temporary flight restrictions area will be
implemented through the FAA Washington Headquarters Office
of Civil Aviation Security. The appropriate FAA air
traffic element, upon receipt of such a request, will
establish a temporary flight restrictions area under 14
CFR Section 91.137(a)(1).
The FAA accepts recommendations for the
establishment of a temporary flight restrictions area
under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) from military major
command headquarters, regional directors of the Office of
Emergency Planning, Civil Defense State Directors, State
Governors, or other similar authority. For the situations
involving 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2), the FAA accepts
recommendations from military commanders serving as
regional, subregional, or Search and Rescue (SAR)
coordinators; by military commanders directing or
coordinating air operations associated with disaster
relief; or by civil authorities directing or coordinating
organized relief air operations (includes representatives
of the Office of Emergency Planning, U.S. Forest Service,
and State aeronautical agencies). Appropriate authorities
for a temporary flight restrictions establishment under 14
CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) are any of those listed above or
by State, county, or city government entities.
The type of restrictions issued will be
kept to a minimum by the FAA consistent with achievement
of the necessary objective. Situations which warrant the
extreme restrictions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1)
include, but are not limited to: toxic gas leaks or
spills, flammable agents, or fumes which if fanned by
rotor or propeller wash could endanger persons or property
on the surface, or if entered by an aircraft could
endanger persons or property in the air; imminent volcano
eruptions which could endanger airborne aircraft and
occupants; nuclear accident or incident; and hijackings.
Situations which warrant the restrictions associated with
14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2) include: forest fires which
are being fought by releasing fire retardants from
aircraft; and aircraft relief activities following a
disaster (earthquake, tidal wave, flood, etc.). 14 CFR
Section 91.137(a)(3) restrictions are established for
events and incidents that would attract an unsafe
congestion of sightseeing aircraft.
The amount of airspace needed to protect
persons and property or provide a safe environment for
rescue/relief aircraft operations is normally limited to
within 2,000 feet above the surface and within a
3-nautical-mile radius. Incidents occurring within Class
B, Class C, or Class D airspace will normally be handled
through existing procedures and should not require the
issuance of a temporary flight restrictions NOTAM.
Temporary flight restrictions affecting airspace outside
of the U.S. and its territories and possessions are issued
with verbiage excluding that airspace outside of the
12-mile coastal limits.
The FSS nearest the incident site is
normally the "coordination facility." When FAA
communications assistance is required, the designated FSS
will function as the primary communications facility for
coordination between emergency control authorities and
affected aircraft. The ARTCC may act as liaison for the
emergency control authorities if adequate communications
cannot be established between the designated FSS and the
relief organization. For example, the coordination
facility may relay authorizations from the on-scene
emergency response official in cases where news media
aircraft operations are approved at the altitudes used by
ATC may authorize operations in a temporary
flight restrictions area under its own authority only when
flight restrictions are established under 14 CFR Section
91.137(a)(2) and (a)(3). The appropriate ARTCC/airport
traffic control tower manager will, however, ensure that
such authorized flights do not hamper activities or
interfere with the event for which restrictions were
implemented. However, ATC will not authorize local IFR
flights into the temporary flight restrictions area.
To preclude misunderstanding, the
implementing NOTAM will contain specific and formatted
information. The facility establishing a temporary flight
restrictions area will format a NOTAM beginning with the
phrase "FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS" followed by: the location of
the temporary flight restrictions area; the effective
period; the area defined in statute miles; the altitudes
affected; the FAA coordination facility and commercial
telephone number; the reason for the temporary flight
restrictions; the agency directing any relief activities
and its commercial telephone number; and other information
considered appropriate by the issuing authority.
1. 14 CFR Section
The following NOTAM prohibits all aircraft operations
except those specified in the NOTAM.
Flight restrictions Matthews, Virginia, effective
immediately until 9610211200. Pursuant to 14 CFR Section
91.137(a)(1) temporary flight restrictions are in effect.
Rescue operations in progress. Only relief aircraft
operations under the direction of the Department of
Defense are authorized in the airspace at and below 5,000
feet MSL within a 2-nautical-mile radius of Laser AFB,
Matthews, Virginia. Commander, Laser AFB, in charge (897)
946-5543 (122.4). Steenson FSS (792) 555-6141 (123.1) is
the FAA coordination facility.
2. 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2):
The following NOTAM permits flight operations in
accordance with 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2). The on-site
emergency response official to authorize media aircraft
operations below the altitudes used by the relief
Flight restrictions 25 miles east of Bransome, Idaho,
effective immediately until 9601202359 UTC. Pursuant to 14
CFR Section 91.137(a)(2) temporary flight restrictions are
in effect within a 4-nautical-mile radius of the
intersection of county roads 564 and 315 at and below
3,500 feet MSL to provide a safe environment for fire
fighting aircraft operations. Davis County sheriff's
department (792) 555-8122 (122.9) is in charge of on-scene
emergency response activities. Glivings FSS (792) 555-1618
(122.2) is the FAA coordination facility.
3. 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3):
The following NOTAM prohibits sightseeing aircraft
Flight restrictions Brown, Tennessee, due to olympic
activity. Effective 9606181100 UTC until 9607190200 UTC.
Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) temporary flight
restrictions are in effect within a 3-nautical-mile radius
of N355783/W835242 and Volunteer VORTAC 019 degree radial
3.7 DME fix at and below 2,500 feet MSL. Norton FSS
(423) 555-6742 (126.6) is the FAA coordination
4. 14 CFR Section 91.138:
The following NOTAM prohibits all aircraft except those
operating under the authorization of the official in
charge of associated emergency or disaster relief response
activities, aircraft carrying law enforcement officials,
aircraft carrying personnel involved in an emergency or
legitimate scientific purposes, carrying properly
accredited news media, and aircraft operating in
accordance with an ATC clearance or instruction.
Flight restrictions Kapalua, Hawaii, effective 9605101200
UTC until 9605151500 UTC. Pursuant to 14 CFR
Section 91.138 temporary flight restrictions are in effect
within a 3-nautical-mile radius of N205778/W1564038 and
Maui/OGG/VORTAC 275 degree radial at 14.1 nautical miles.
John Doe 808-757-4469 or 122.4 is in charge of the
operation. Honolulu/HNL 808-757-4470 (123.6) AFSS is the
FAA coordination facility.
5. 14 CFR Section 91.141:
The following NOTAM prohibits all aircraft.
Flight restrictions Stillwater, Oklahoma, June 21, 1996.
Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.141 aircraft flight
operations are prohibited within a 3-nautical-mile radius,
below 2000 feet AGL of N360962/W970515 and the Stillwater/SWO/VOR/DME
176 degree radial 3.8- nautical-mile fix from 1400 local
time to 1700 local time June 21, 1996, unless otherwise
authorized by ATC.
6. 14 CFR Section
The following NOTAM prohibits any aircraft of U.S.
registry, or pilot any aircraft under the authority of an
airman certificate issued by the FAA.
Kennedy space center space operations area effective
immediately until 9610152100 UTC. Pursuant to 14 CFR
Section 91.143, flight operations conducted by FAA
certificated pilots or conducted in aircraft of U.S.
registry are prohibited at any altitude from surface to
unlimited, within the following area 30-nautical-mile
radius of the Melbourne/MLB/VORTAC 010 degree radial
21-nautical-mile fix. St. Petersburg, Florida/PIE/AFSS
813-545-1645 (122.2) is the FAA coordination facility and
should be contacted for the current status of any airspace
associated with the space shuttle operations. This
airspace encompasses R2933, R2932, R2931, R2934, R2935,
W497A and W158A. Additional warning and restricted areas
will be active in conjunction with the operations. Pilots
shall consult all NOTAM's regarding this operation.
Jump Aircraft Operations
Procedures relating to parachute jump areas
are contained in 14 CFR Part 105. Tabulations of parachute
jump areas in the U.S. are contained in the A/FD.
Pilots of aircraft engaged in parachute
jump operations are reminded that all reported altitudes
must be with reference to mean sea level, or flight level,
as appropriate, to enable ATC to provide meaningful
Parachute operations in the vicinity of an
airport without an operating control tower - there is no
substitute for alertness while in the vicinity of an
airport. It is essential that pilots conducting parachute
operations be alert, look for other traffic, and exchange
traffic information as recommended in paragraph
4-1-9, Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without
Operating Control Towers. In addition, pilots should avoid
releasing parachutes while in an airport traffic pattern
when there are other aircraft in that pattern. Pilots
should make appropriate broadcasts on the designated
Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF), and monitor that
CTAF until all parachute activity has terminated or the
aircraft has left the area. Prior to commencing a jump
operation, the pilot should broadcast the aircraft's
altitude and position in relation to the airport, the
approximate relative time when the jump will commence and
terminate, and listen to the position reports of other
aircraft in the area.
Published VFR Routes
Published VFR routes for
transitioning around, under and through complex airspace
such as Class B airspace were developed through a number of
FAA and industry initiatives. All of the following terms,
i.e., "VFR Flyway" "VFR Corridor" and "Class B Airspace VFR
Transition Route" have been used when referring to the same
or different types of routes or airspace. The following
paragraphs identify and clarify the functionality of each
type of route, and specify where and when an ATC clearance
a. VFR Flyways:
VFR Flyways and their associated Flyway
Planning Charts were developed from the recommendations
of a National Airspace Review Task Group. A VFR Flyway
is defined as a general flight path not defined as a
specific course, for use by pilots in planning flights
into, out of, through or near complex terminal airspace
to avoid Class B airspace. An ATC clearance is NOT
required to fly these routes.
VFR Flyway Planning
VFR Flyways are depicted on the reverse
side of some of the VFR Terminal Area Charts (TAC),
commonly referred to as Class B airspace charts. (See
FIG 3-5-1.) Eventually all TAC's will include a VFR
Flyway Planning Chart. These charts identify VFR flyways
designed to help VFR pilots avoid major controlled
traffic flows. They may further depict multiple VFR
routings throughout the area which may be used as an
alternative to flight within Class B airspace. The
ground references provide a guide for improved visual
navigation. These routes are not intended to discourage
requests for VFR operations within Class B airspace but
are designed solely to assist pilots in planning for
flights under and around busy Class B airspace without
actually entering Class B airspace.
It is very important to remember that
these suggested routes are not sterile of other traffic.
The entire Class B airspace, and the airspace underneath
it, may be heavily congested with many different types
of aircraft. Pilot adherence to VFR rules must be
exercised at all times. Further, when operating beneath
Class B airspace, communications must be established and
maintained between your aircraft and any control tower
while transiting the Class B, Class C, and Class D
surface areas of those airports under Class B Airspace.
b. VFR Corridors.
The design of a few of the first Class B
airspace areas provided a corridor for the passage of
uncontrolled traffic. A VFR corridor is defined as
airspace through Class B airspace, with defined vertical
and lateral boundaries, in which aircraft may operate
without an ATC clearance or communication with air
These corridors are, in effect, a "hole"
through Class B airspace. (See FIG 3-5-2.) A classic
example would be the corridor through the Los Angeles
Class B airspace, which has been subsequently changed to
Special Flight Rules airspace (SFR). A corridor is
surrounded on all sides by Class B airspace and does not
extend down to the surface like a VFR Flyway. Because of
their finite lateral and vertical limits, and the volume
of VFR traffic using a corridor, extreme caution and
vigilance must be exercised.
Class B Airspace
Because of the heavy traffic volume and
the procedures necessary to efficiently manage the flow
of traffic, it has not been possible to incorporate VFR
corridors in the development or modifications of Class B
airspace in recent years.
c. Class B Airspace VFR
To accommodate VFR traffic through
certain Class B airspace, such as Seattle, Phoenix and
Los Angeles, Class B Airspace VFR Transition Routes were
developed. A Class B Airspace VFR Transition Route is
defined as a specific flight course depicted on a TAC
for transiting a specific Class B airspace. These routes
include specific ATC-assigned altitudes, and pilots must
obtain an ATC clearance prior to entering Class B
airspace on the route.
These routes, as depicted in FIG 3-5-3,
are designed to show the pilot where to position the
aircraft outside of, or clear of, the Class B airspace
where an ATC clearance can normally be expected with
minimal or no delay. Until ATC authorization is
received, pilots must remain clear of Class B airspace.
On initial contact, pilots should advise ATC of their
position, altitude, route name desired, and direction of
flight. After a clearance is received, pilots must fly
the route as depicted and, most importantly, adhere to
VFR Transition Route
Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA)
TRSA's were originally established as
part of the Terminal Radar Program at selected airports.
TRSA's were never controlled airspace from a regulatory
standpoint because the establishment of TRSA's was never
subject to the rulemaking process; consequently, TRSA's
are not contained in 14 CFR Part 71 nor are there any TRSA
operating rules in 14 CFR Part 91. Part of the Airport
Radar Service Area (ARSA) program was to eventually
replace all TRSA's. However, the ARSA requirements became
relatively stringent and it was subsequently decided that
TRSA's would have to meet ARSA criteria before they would
be converted. TRSA's do not fit into any of the U.S.
airspace classes; therefore, they will continue to be
non-Part 71 airspace areas where participating pilots can
receive additional radar services which have been
redefined as TRSA Service.
The primary airport(s) within the TRSA
become(s) Class D airspace. The remaining portion of the
TRSA overlies other controlled airspace which is normally
Class E airspace beginning at 700 or 1,200 feet and
established to transition to/from the en route/terminal
Pilots operating under VFR are
encouraged to contact the radar approach control and avail
themselves of the TRSA Services. However, participation is
voluntary on the part of the pilot. See
Chapter 4, Air Traffic Control, for details and
TRSA's are depicted on VFR sectional and
terminal area charts with a solid black line and altitudes
for each segment. The Class D portion is charted with a
blue segmented line.
National Security Areas
National Security Areas
consist of airspace of defined vertical and lateral
dimensions established at locations where there is a
requirement for increased security and safety of ground
facilities. Pilots are requested to voluntarily avoid flying
through the depicted NSA. When it is necessary to provide a
greater level of security and safety, flight in NSA's may be
temporarily prohibited by regulation under the provisions of
14 CFR Section 99.7. Regulatory prohibitions will be issued
by ATA-400 and disseminated via NOTAM. Inquiries about NSA's
should be directed to the Airspace and Rules Division,