Section 4. Arrival Procedures


5-4-1. Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR), Flight Management System Procedures (FMSP) for Arrivals

a. A STAR is an ATC coded IFR arrival route established for application to arriving IFR aircraft destined for certain airports. FMSP's for arrivals serve the same purpose but are only used by aircraft equipped with FMS. The purpose of both is to simplify clearance delivery procedures and facilitate transition between en route and instrument approach procedures.

1. STAR's/FMSP's may have mandatory speeds and/or crossing altitudes published. Other STAR's may have planning information depicted to inform pilots what clearances or restrictions to "expect." "Expect" altitudes/speeds are not considered STAR/FMSP crossing restrictions until verbally issued by ATC.

The "expect" altitudes/speeds are published so that pilots may have the information for planning purposes. These altitudes/speeds should not be used in the event of lost communications unless ATC has specifically advised the pilot to expect these altitudes/speeds as part of a further clearance.

14 CFR Section 91.185(c)(2)(iii).

2. Pilots navigating on a STAR/FMSD shall maintain last assigned altitude until receiving authorization to descend so as to comply with all published/issued restrictions. This authorization will contain the phraseology "DESCEND VIA."

(a) A "descend via" clearance authorizes pilots to vertically and laterally navigate, in accordance with the depicted procedure, to meet published restrictions. Vertical navigation is at pilot's discretion, however, adherence to published altitude crossing restrictions and speeds is mandatory unless otherwise cleared. (Minimum En Route Altitudes [MEA's] are not considered restrictions; however, pilots are expected to remain above MEA's).

1. Lateral/routing clearance only.
"Cleared Hadly One arrival."
2. Routing with assigned altitude.
"Cleared Hadly One arrival, descend and maintain Flight Level two four zero."
"Cleared Hadly One arrival, descend at pilot's discretion, maintain Flight Level two four zero."
3. Lateral/routing and vertical navigation clearance.
"Descend via the Civit One arrival."
"Descend via the Civit One arrival, except, cross Arnes at or above one one thousand."

In Example 2, pilots are expected to descend to FL 240 as directed, and maintain FL 240 until cleared for further vertical navigation with a newly assigned altitude or a "descend via" clearance.

(b) Pilots cleared for vertical navigation using the phraseology "descend via" shall inform ATC upon initial contact with a new frequency.

"Delta One Twenty One descending via the Civit One arrival."

b. Pilots of IFR aircraft destined to locations for which STAR's have been published may be issued a clearance containing a STAR whenever ATC deems it appropriate.

c. Use of STAR's requires pilot possession of at least the approved chart. As with any ATC clearance or portion thereof, it is the responsibility of each pilot to accept or refuse an issued STAR. Pilots should notify ATC if they do not wish to use a STAR by placing "NO STAR" in the remarks section of the flight plan or by the less desirable method of verbally stating the same to ATC.

d. STAR charts are published in the Terminal Procedures Publications (TPP) and are available on subscription from the National Aeronautical Charting Office, AVN-500.

5-4-2. Local Flow Traffic Management Program

a. This program is a continuing effort by the FAA to enhance safety, minimize the impact of aircraft noise and conserve aviation fuel. The enhancement of safety and reduction of noise is achieved in this program by minimizing low altitude maneuvering of arriving turbojet and turboprop aircraft weighing more than 12,500 pounds and, by permitting departure aircraft to climb to higher altitudes sooner, as arrivals are operating at higher altitudes at the points where their flight paths cross. The application of these procedures also reduces exposure time between controlled aircraft and uncontrolled aircraft at the lower altitudes in and around the terminal environment. Fuel conservation is accomplished by absorbing any necessary arrival delays for aircraft included in this program operating at the higher and more fuel efficient altitudes.

b. A fuel efficient descent is basically an uninterrupted descent (except where level flight is required for speed adjustment) from cruising altitude to the point when level flight is necessary for the pilot to stabilize the aircraft on final approach. The procedure for a fuel efficient descent is based on an altitude loss which is most efficient for the majority of aircraft being served. This will generally result in a descent gradient window of 250-350 feet per nautical mile.

c. When crossing altitudes and speed restrictions are issued verbally or are depicted on a chart, ATC will expect the pilot to descend first to the crossing altitude and then reduce speed. Verbal clearances for descent will normally permit an uninterrupted descent in accordance with the procedure as described in paragraph b above. Acceptance of a charted fuel efficient descent (Runway Profile Descent) clearance requires the pilot to adhere to the altitudes, speeds, and headings depicted on the charts unless otherwise instructed by ATC. PILOTS RECEIVING A CLEARANCE FOR A FUEL EFFICIENT DESCENT ARE EXPECTED TO ADVISE ATC IF THEY DO NOT HAVE RUNWAY PROFILE DESCENT CHARTS PUBLISHED FOR THAT AIRPORT OR ARE UNABLE TO COMPLY WITH THE CLEARANCE.

5-4-3. Approach Control

a. Approach control is responsible for controlling all instrument flight operating within its area of responsibility. Approach control may serve one or more airfields, and control is exercised primarily by direct pilot and controller communications. Prior to arriving at the destination radio facility, instructions will be received from ARTCC to contact approach control on a specified frequency.

b. Radar Approach Control.

1. Where radar is approved for approach control service, it is used not only for radar approaches (Airport Surveillance Radar [ASR] and Precision Approach Radar [PAR]) but is also used to provide vectors in conjunction with published nonradar approaches based on radio NAVAID's (ILS, MLS, VOR, NDB, TACAN). Radar vectors can provide course guidance and expedite traffic to the final approach course of any established IAP or to the traffic pattern for a visual approach. Approach control facilities that provide this radar service will operate in the following manner:

(a) Arriving aircraft are either cleared to an outer fix most appropriate to the route being flown with vertical separation and, if required, given holding information or, when radar handoffs are effected between the ARTCC and approach control, or between two approach control facilities, aircraft are cleared to the airport or to a fix so located that the handoff will be completed prior to the time the aircraft reaches the fix. When radar handoffs are utilized, successive arriving flights may be handed off to approach control with radar separation in lieu of vertical separation.

(b) After release to approach control, aircraft are vectored to the final approach course (ILS, MLS, VOR, ADF, etc.). Radar vectors and altitude or flight levels will be issued as required for spacing and separating aircraft. Therefore, pilots must not deviate from the headings issued by approach control. Aircraft will normally be informed when it is necessary to vector across the final approach course for spacing or other reasons. If approach course crossing is imminent and the pilot has not been informed that the aircraft will be vectored across the final approach course, the pilot should query the controller.

(c) The pilot is not expected to turn inbound on the final approach course unless an approach clearance has been issued. This clearance will normally be issued with the final vector for interception of the final approach course, and the vector will be such as to enable the pilot to establish the aircraft on the final approach course prior to reaching the final approach fix.

(d) In the case of aircraft already inbound on the final approach course, approach clearance will be issued prior to the aircraft reaching the final approach fix. When established inbound on the final approach course, radar separation will be maintained and the pilot will be expected to complete the approach utilizing the approach aid designated in the clearance (ILS, MLS, VOR, radio beacons, etc.) as the primary means of navigation. Therefore, once established on the final approach course, pilots must not deviate from it unless a clearance to do so is received from ATC.

(e) After passing the final approach fix on final approach, aircraft are expected to continue inbound on the final approach course and complete the approach or effect the missed approach procedure published for that airport.

2. ARTCC's are approved for and may provide approach control services to specific airports. The radar systems used by these centers do not provide the same precision as an ASR/PAR used by approach control facilities and towers, and the update rate is not as fast. Therefore, pilots may be requested to report established on the final approach course.

3. Whether aircraft are vectored to the appropriate final approach course or provide their own navigation on published routes to it, radar service is automatically terminated when the landing is completed or when instructed to change to advisory frequency at uncontrolled airports, whichever occurs first.

5-4-4. Advance Information on Instrument Approach

a. When landing at airports with approach control services and where two or more IAP's are published, pilots will be provided in advance of their arrival with the type of approach to expect or that they may be vectored for a visual approach. This information will be broadcast either by a controller or on ATIS. It will not be furnished when the visibility is three miles or better and the ceiling is at or above the highest initial approach altitude established for any low altitude IAP for the airport.

b. The purpose of this information is to aid the pilot in planning arrival actions; however, it is not an ATC clearance or commitment and is subject to change. Pilots should bear in mind that fluctuating weather, shifting winds, blocked runway, etc., are conditions which may result in changes to approach information previously received. It is important that pilots advise ATC immediately they are unable to execute the approach ATC advised will be used, or if they prefer another type of approach.

c. Aircraft destined to uncontrolled airports, which have automated weather data with broadcast capability, should monitor the ASOS/AWOS frequency to ascertain the current weather for the airport. The pilot shall advise ATC when he/she has received the broadcast weather and state his/her intentions.

1. ASOS/AWOS should be set to provide one-minute broadcast weather updates at uncontrolled airports that are without weather broadcast capability by a human observer.

2. Controllers will consider the long line disseminated weather from an automated weather system at an uncontrolled airport as trend and planning information only and will rely on the pilot for current weather information for the airport. If the pilot is unable to receive the current broadcast weather, the last long line disseminated weather will be issued to the pilot. When receiving IFR services, the pilot/aircraft operator is responsible for determining if weather/visibility is adequate for approach/landing.

d. When making an IFR approach to an airport not served by a tower or FSS, after ATC advises "CHANGE TO ADVISORY FREQUENCY APPROVED" you should broadcast your intentions, including the type of approach being executed, your position, and when over the final approach fix inbound (nonprecision approach) or when over the outer marker or fix used in lieu of the outer marker inbound (precision approach). Continue to monitor the appropriate frequency (UNICOM, etc.) for reports from other pilots.

5-4-5. Instrument Approach Procedure Charts

a. 14 CFR Section 91.175(a), Instrument approaches to civil airports, requires the use of SIAP's prescribed for the airport in 14 CFR Part 97 unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator (including ATC). 14 CFR Section 91.175(g), Military airports, requires civil pilots flying into or out of military airports to comply with the IAP's and takeoff and landing minimums prescribed by the authority having jurisdiction at those airports.

1. All IAP's (standard and special, civil and military) are based on joint civil and military criteria contained in the U.S. Standard for TERPS. The design of IAP's based on criteria contained in TERPS, takes into account the interrelationship between airports, facilities, and the surrounding environment, terrain, obstacles, noise sensitivity, etc. Appropriate altitudes, courses, headings, distances, and other limitations are specified and, once approved, the procedures are published and distributed by government and commercial cartographers as instrument approach charts.

2. Not all IAP's are published in chart form. Radar IAP's are established where requirements and facilities exist but they are printed in tabular form in appropriate U.S. Government Flight Information Publications.

3. Straight-in IAP's are identified by the navigational system providing the final approach guidance and the runway to which the approach is aligned (e.g. VOR RWY 13). Circling only approaches are identified by the navigational system providing final approach guidance and a letter (e.g., VOR A). More than one navigational system separated by a slash indicates that more than one type of equipment must be used to execute the final approach (e.g., VOR/DME RWY 31). More than one navigational system separated by the word "or" indicates either type of equipment may be used to execute the final approach (e.g., VOR or GPS RWY 15). In some cases, other types of navigation systems may be required to execute other portions of the approach (e.g., an NDB procedure turn to an ILS or an NDB in the missed approach). Pilots should ensure that the aircraft is equipped with the required NAVAID(s) in order to execute the approach, including the missed approach. The FAA will initiate a program to provide a new notation for LOC approaches when charted on an ILS approach requiring other navigational aids to fly the final approach course. The LOC minimums will be annotated with the NAVAID required e.g., "DME Required" or "RADAR Required." During the transition period, ILS approaches will still exist without the annotation. The naming of multiple approaches of the same type to the same runway is also changing. New approaches with the same guidance will be annotated with an alphabetical suffix beginning at the end of the alphabet and working backwards for subsequent procedures (ILS Z RWY 28, ILS Y RWY 28, etc.). The existing annotations such as ILS 2 RWY 28 or Silver ILS RWY 28 will be phased out and eventually replaced with the new designation. Category II and III, ILS procedures are not subject to this naming convention. WAAS, LNAV/VNAV, and GPS approach procedures will be charted as RNAV RWY (Number); e.g., RNAV RWY 21. VOR/DME RNAV approaches will continue to be identified as VOR/DME RNAV RWY (Number); e.g., VOR/DME RNAV RWY 21.

4. Approach minimums are based on the local altimeter setting for that airport, unless annotated otherwise; e.g., Oklahoma City/Will Rogers World approaches are based on having a Will Rogers World altimeter setting. When a different altimeter source is required, or more than one source is authorized, it will be annotated on the approach chart; e.g., use Sidney altimeter setting, if not received, use Scottsbluff altimeter setting. Approach minimums may be raised when a nonlocal altimeter source is authorized. When more than one altimeter source is authorized, and the minima are different, they will be shown by separate lines in the approach minima box or a note; e.g., use Manhattan altimeter setting; when not available use Salina altimeter setting and increase all MDA's 40 feet. When the altimeter must be obtained from a source other than air traffic a note will indicate the source; e.g., Obtain local altimeter setting on CTAF. When the altimeter setting(s) on which the approach is based is not available, the approach is not authorized.

5. A pilot adhering to the altitudes, flight paths, and weather minimums depicted on the IAP chart or vectors and altitudes issued by the radar controller, is assured of terrain and obstruction clearance and runway or airport alignment during approach for landing.

6. IAP's are designed to provide an IFR descent from the en route environment to a point where a safe landing can be made. They are prescribed and approved by appropriate civil or military authority to ensure a safe descent during instrument flight conditions at a specific airport. It is important that pilots understand these procedures and their use prior to attempting to fly instrument approaches.

7. TERPS criteria are provided for the following type of instrument approach procedures:

(a) Precision approaches where an electronic glide slope is provided (PAR, ILS, MLS, TLS, WAAS, LAAS, GLS, and SCAT-1).

(b) Nonprecision approaches where glide slope information is not provided (all except for subparagraph a above).

b. The method used to depict prescribed altitudes on instrument approach charts differs according to techniques employed by different chart publishers. Prescribed altitudes may be depicted in three different configurations: minimum, maximum, and mandatory. The U.S. Government distributes charts produced by National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and FAA. Altitudes are depicted on these charts in the profile view with underscore, overscore, or both to identify them as minimum, maximum, or mandatory.

1. Minimum altitude will be depicted with the altitude value underscored. Aircraft are required to maintain altitude at or above the depicted value.

2. Maximum altitude will be depicted with the altitude value overscored. Aircraft are required to maintain altitude at or below the depicted value.

3. Mandatory altitude will be depicted with the altitude value both underscored and overscored. Aircraft are required to maintain altitude at the depicted value.

The underscore and overscore to identify mandatory altitudes and the overscore to identify maximum altitudes are used almost exclusively by NIMA for military charts. With very few exceptions, civil approach charts produced by FAA utilize only the underscore to identify minimum altitudes. Pilots are cautioned to adhere to altitudes as prescribed because, in certain instances, they may be used as the basis for vertical separation of aircraft by ATC. When a depicted altitude is specified in the ATC clearance, that altitude becomes mandatory as defined above.

c. Minimum Safe/Sector Altitudes (MSA) are published for emergency use on IAP charts. For conventional navigation systems, the MSA is normally based on the primary omnidirectional facility on which the IAP is predicated. The MSA depiction on the approach chart contains the facility identifier of the NAVAID used to determine the MSA altitudes. For RNAV approaches, the MSA is based on the runway waypoint (RWY WP) for straight-in approaches, or the airport waypoint (APT WP) for circling approaches. For GPS approaches, the MSA center will be the missed approach waypoint (MAWP). MSA's are expressed in feet above mean sea level and normally have a 25 NM radius; however, this radius may be expanded to 30 NM if necessary to encompass the airport landing surfaces. Ideally, a single sector altitude is established and depicted on the plan view of approach charts; however, when necessary to obtain relief from obstructions, the area may be further sectored and as many as four MSA's established. When established, sectors may be no less than 90 in spread. MSA's provide 1,000 feet clearance over all obstructions but do not necessarily assure acceptable navigation signal coverage.

d. Terminal Arrival Area (TAA)

1. The objective of the TAA is to provide a seamless transition from the en route structure to the terminal environment for arriving aircraft equipped with Flight Management System (FMS) and/or Global Positioning System (GPS) navigational equipment. The underlying instrument approach procedure is an area navigation (RNAV) procedure described in this section. The TAA provides the pilot and air traffic controller with a very efficient method for routing traffic into the terminal environment with little required air traffic control interface, and with minimum altitudes depicted that provide standard obstacle clearance compatible with the instrument procedure associated with it. The TAA will not be found on all RNAV procedures, particularly in areas of heavy concentration of air traffic. When the TAA is published, it replaces the MSA for that approach procedure.

2. The RNAV procedure underlying the TAA will be the "T" design (also called the "Basic T"), or a modification of the "T." The "T" design incorporates from one to three IAF's; an intermediate fix (IF) that serves as a dual purpose IF (IAF); a final approach fix (FAF), and a missed approach point (MAP) usually located at the runway threshold. The three IAF's are normally aligned in a straight line perpendicular to the intermediate course, which is an extension of the final course leading to the runway, forming a "T." The initial segment is normally from 3-6 NM in length; the intermediate 5-7 NM, and the final segment 5 NM. Specific segment length may be varied to accommodate specific aircraft categories for which the procedure is designed. However, the published segment lengths will reflect the highest category of aircraft normally expected to use the procedure.

(a) A standard racetrack holding pattern may be provided at the center IAF, and if present may be necessary for course reversal and for altitude adjustment for entry into the procedure. In the latter case, the pattern provides an extended distance for the descent required by the procedure. Depiction of this pattern in U.S. Government publications will utilize the "hold-in-lieu-of-PT" holding pattern symbol.

(b) The published procedure will be annotated to indicate when the course reversal is not necessary when flying within a particular TAA area; e.g., "NoPT." Otherwise, the pilot is expected to execute the course reversal under the provisions of 14 CFR Section 91.175. The pilot may elect to use the course reversal pattern when it is not required by the procedure, but must inform air traffic control and receive clearance to do so. (See FIG 5-4-1 and FIG 5-4-2).

FIG 5-4-1

Basic "T" Design


FIG 5-4-2

Basic "T" Design


FIG 5-4-3

Modified Basic "T"


3. The "T" design may be modified by the procedure designers where required by terrain or air traffic control considerations. For instance, the "T" design may appear more like a regularly or irregularly shaped "Y", or may even have one or both outboard IAF's eliminated resulting in an upside down "L" or an "I" configuration. (See FIG 5-4-3 and FIG 5-4-10). Further, the leg lengths associated with the outboard IAF's may differ. (See FIG 5-4-5 and FIG 5-4-6).

4. Another modification of the "T" design may be found at airports with parallel runway configurations. Each parallel runway may be served by its own "T" IAF, IF (IAF), and FAF combination, resulting in parallel final approach courses. (See FIG 5-4-4). Common IAF's may serve both runways; however, only the intermediate and final approach segments for the landing runway will be shown on the approach chart. (See FIG 5-4-5 and FIG 5-4-6).

FIG 5-4-4

Modified "T" Approach to Parallel Runways


FIG 5-4-5

"T" Approach with Common IAF's to Parallel Runways



FIG 5-4-6

"T" Approach with Common IAF's to Parallel Runways


FIG 5-4-7

TAA Area


5. The standard TAA consists of three areas defined by the extension of the IAF legs and the intermediate segment course. These areas are called the straight-in, left-base, and right-base areas. (See FIG 5-4-7). TAA area lateral boundaries are identified by magnetic courses TO the IF (IAF). The straight-in area can be further divided into pie-shaped sectors with the boundaries identified by magnetic courses TO the IF (IAF), and may contain stepdown sections defined by arcs based on RNAV distances (DME or ATD) from the IF (IAF). The right/left-base areas can only be subdivided using arcs based on RNAV distances from the IAF's for those areas. Minimum MSL altitudes are charted within each of these defined areas/subdivisions that provide at least 1,000 feet of obstacle clearance, or more as necessary in mountainous areas.

(a) Prior to arriving at the TAA boundary, the pilot can determine which area of the TAA the aircraft will enter by selecting the IF (IAF) to determine the magnetic bearing TO the IF (IAF). That bearing should then be compared with the published bearings that define the lateral boundaries of the TAA areas. This is critical when approaching the TAA near the extended boundary between the left and right-base areas, especially where these areas contain different minimum altitude requirements.

(b) Pilots entering the TAA and cleared by air traffic control, are expected to proceed directly to the IAF associated with that area of the TAA at the altitude depicted, unless otherwise cleared by air traffic control. Pilots entering the TAA with two-way radio communications failure (14 CFR Section 91.185, IFR Operations: Two-way Radio Communications Failure), must maintain the highest altitude prescribed by Section 91.185(c)(2) until arriving at the appropriate IAF.

FIG 5-4-8

Sectored TAA Areas


(c) Depiction of the TAA on U.S. Government charts will be through the use of icons located in the plan view outside the depiction of the actual approach procedure. (See FIG 5-4-9). Use of icons is necessary to avoid obscuring any portion of the "T" procedure (altitudes, courses, minimum altitudes, etc.). The icon for each TAA area will be located and oriented on the plan view with respect to the direction of arrival to the approach procedure, and will show all TAA minimum altitudes and sector/radius subdivisions for that area. The IAF for each area of the TAA is included on the icon where it appears on the approach, to help the pilot orient the icon to the approach procedure. The IAF name and the distance of the TAA area boundary from the IAF are included on the outside arc of the TAA area icon. Examples here are shown with the TAA around the approach to aid pilots in visualizing how the TAA corresponds to the approach and should not be confused with the actual approach chart depiction.

(d) Each waypoint on the "T", except the missed approach waypoint, is assigned a pronounceable 5-character name used in air traffic control communications, and which is found in the RNAV databases for the procedure. The missed approach waypoint is assigned a pronounceable name when it is not located at the runway threshold.

6. Once cleared to fly the TAA, pilots are expected to obey minimum altitudes depicted within the TAA icons, unless instructed otherwise by air traffic control. In FIG 5-4-8, pilots within the left or right-base areas are expected to maintain a minimum altitude of 6,000 feet until within 17 NM of the associated IAF. After crossing the 17 NM arc, descent is authorized to the lower charted altitudes. Pilots approaching from the northwest are expected to maintain a minimum altitude of 6,000 feet, and when within 22 NM of the IF (IAF), descend to a minimum altitude of 2,000 feet MSL until reaching the IF (IAF).


FIG 5-4-9

RNAV Approach Chart


FIG 5-4-10

TAA with Left and Right Base Areas Eliminated


7. Just as the underlying "T" approach procedure may be modified in shape, the TAA may contain modifications to the defined area shapes and sizes. Some areas may even be eliminated, with other areas expanded as needed. FIG 5-4-10 is an example of a design limitation where a course reversal is necessary when approaching the IF (IAF) from certain directions due to the amount of turn required at the IF (IAF). Design criteria require a course reversal whenever this turn exceeds 120 degrees. In this generalized example, pilots approaching on a bearing TO the IF (IAF) from 300 clockwise through 060 are expected to execute a course reversal. The term "NoPT" will be annotated on the boundary of the TAA icon for the other portion of the TAA.

FIG 5-4-11

TAA with Right Base Eliminated


8. FIG 5-4-11 depicts another TAA modification that pilots may encounter. In this generalized example, the right-base area has been eliminated. Pilots operating within the TAA between 360 clockwise to 060 bearing TO the IF (IAF) are expected to execute the course reversal in order to properly align the aircraft for entry onto the intermediate segment. Aircraft operating in all other areas from 060 clockwise to 360 degrees bearing TO the IF (IAF) need not perform the course reversal, and the term "NoPT" will be annotated on the TAA boundary of the icon in these areas.


FIG 5-4-12

Examples of a TAA with Feeders from an Airway


9. When an airway does not cross the lateral TAA boundaries, a feeder route will be established to provide a transition from the en route structure to the appropriate IAF. Each feeder route will terminate at the TAA boundary, and will be aligned along a path pointing to the associated IAF. Pilots should descend to the TAA altitude after crossing the TAA boundary and cleared by air traffic control. (See FIG 5-4-12).


FIG 5-4-13

Minimum Vectoring Altitude Charts


e. Minimum Vectoring Altitudes (MVA's) are established for use by ATC when radar ATC is exercised. MVA charts are prepared by air traffic facilities at locations where there are numerous different minimum IFR altitudes. Each MVA chart has sectors large enough to accommodate vectoring of aircraft within the sector at the MVA. Each sector boundary is at least 3 miles from the obstruction determining the MVA. To avoid a large sector with an excessively high MVA due to an isolated prominent obstruction, the obstruction may be enclosed in a buffer area whose boundaries are at least 3 miles from the obstruction. This is done to facilitate vectoring around the obstruction. (See FIG 5-4-13.)

1. The minimum vectoring altitude in each sector provides 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle in nonmountainous areas and 2,000 feet above the highest obstacle in designated mountainous areas. Where lower MVA's are required in designated mountainous areas to achieve compatibility with terminal routes or to permit vectoring to an IAP, 1,000 feet of obstacle clearance may be authorized with the use of Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR). The minimum vectoring altitude will provide at least 300 feet above the floor of controlled airspace.

OROCA is an off-route altitude which provides obstruction clearance with a 1,000 foot buffer in nonmountainous terrain areas and a 2,000 foot buffer in designated mountainous areas within the U.S. This altitude may not provide signal coverage from ground-based navigational aids, air traffic control radar, or communications coverage.

2. Because of differences in the areas considered for MVA, and those applied to other minimum altitudes, and the ability to isolate specific obstacles, some MVA's may be lower than the nonradar Minimum En Route Altitudes (MEA's), Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitudes (MOCA's) or other minimum altitudes depicted on charts for a given location. While being radar vectored, IFR altitude assignments by ATC will be at or above MVA.

f. Visual Descent Points (VDP's) are being incorporated in selected nonprecision approach procedures. The VDP is a defined point on the final approach course of a nonprecision straight-in approach procedure from which normal descent from the MDA to the runway touchdown point may be commenced, provided visual reference required by 14 CFR Section 91.175(c)(3) is established. The VDP will normally be identified by DME on VOR and LOC procedures and by along track distance to the next waypoint for RNAV procedures. The VDP is identified on the profile view of the approach chart by the symbol: V.

1. VDP's are intended to provide additional guidance where they are implemented. No special technique is required to fly a procedure with a VDP. The pilot should not descend below the MDA prior to reaching the VDP and acquiring the necessary visual reference.

2. Pilots not equipped to receive the VDP should fly the approach procedure as though no VDP had been provided.

g. Visual Portion of the Final Segment. Instrument procedures designers perform a visual area obstruction evaluation off the approach end of each runway authorized for instrument landing, straight-in, or circling. Restrictions to instrument operations are imposed if penetrations of the obstruction clearance surfaces exist. These restrictions vary based on the severity of the penetrations, and may include increasing required visibility, denying VDP's and prohibiting night instrument operations to the runway.

h. Vertical Descent Angle (VDA) on Nonprecision Approaches. Descent angles are currently being published on selected nonprecision approaches. The FAA intends to eventually publish VDA's on all nonprecision approaches. Published along with the VDA is the threshold crossing height (TCH); i.e., the height of the descent angle above the landing threshold. The descent angle describes a computed path from the final approach fix (FAF) and altitude to the runway threshold at the published TCH. The optimum descent angle is 3.00 degrees; and whenever possible the approach will be designed to accommodate this angle.

1. The VDA provides the pilot with information not previously available on nonprecision approaches. It provides the means for the pilot to establish a stabilized approach descent from the FAF or stepdown fix to the TCH. Stabilized descent along this path is a key factor in the reduction of controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) incidents. Pilots can use the published angle and estimated/actual groundspeed to find a target rate of descent from a rate of descent table published with the instrument approach procedures.

2. Normally, the VDA will first appear on the nonprecision approach chart as the procedure is amended through the normal process. However, in some cases, pilots can expect to see this data provided via a D-NOTAM.

GPS RWY 9L, AMDT 2. . .

Translated, this means that the currently published GPS RWY 9L procedure, Amendment 2, is changed by the addition of a 2.96-degree descent angle from AWZAC WP to a point 50 feet above the RWY 9L threshold. This constitutes Amendment 2A to the published procedure.

3. Pilots should be aware that the published angle is for information only - it is strictly advisory in nature. There is no implicit additional obstacle protection below the MDA. Pilots must still respect the published minimum descent altitude (MDA) unless the visual cues stated in 14 CFR Section 91.175 are present. In rare cases, the published procedure descent angle will not coincide with the Visual Glide Slope Indicator (VGSI); VASI or PAPI. In these cases, the procedure will be annotated: "VGSI and descent angle not coincident."

i. Pilot Operational Considerations When Flying Nonprecision Approaches. The missed approach point (MAP) on a nonprecision approach is not designed with any consideration to where the aircraft must begin descent to execute a safe landing. It is developed based on terrain, obstructions, NAVAID location and possibly air traffic considerations. Because the MAP may be located anywhere from well prior to the runway threshold to past the opposite end of the runway, the descent from the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) to the runway threshold cannot be determined based on the MAP location. Descent from MDA at the MAP when the MAP is located close to the threshold would require an excessively steep descent gradient to land in the normal touchdown zone. Any turn from the final approach course to the runway heading may also be a factor in when to begin the descent.

1. Pilots are cautioned that descent to a straight-in landing from the MDA at the MAP may be inadvisable or impossible, on a nonprecision approach, even if current weather conditions meet the published ceiling and visibility. Aircraft speed, height above the runway, descent rate, amount of turn and runway length are some of the factors which must be considered by the pilot to determine if a landing can be accomplished.

2. Visual descent points (VDP's) provide pilots with a reference for the optimal location to begin descent from the MDA, based on the designed vertical descent angle (VDA) for the approach procedure, assuming required visual references are available. Approaches without VDP's have not been assessed for terrain clearance below the MDA, and may not provide a clear vertical path to the runway at the normally expected descent angle. Therefore, pilots must be especially vigilant when descending below the MDA at locations without VDP's. This does not necessarily prevent flying the normal angle; it only means that obstacle clearance in the visual segment could be less and greater care should be exercised in looking for obstacles in the visual segment. Use of visual glide slope indicator (VGSI) systems can aid the pilot in determining if the aircraft is in a position to make the descent from the MDA. However, when the visibility is close to minimums, the VGSI may not be visible at the start descent point for a "normal" glide path, due to its location down the runway.

3. Accordingly, pilots are advised to carefully review approach procedures, prior to initiating the approach, to identify the optimum position(s), and any unacceptable positions, from which a descent to landing can be initiated (in accordance with 14 CFR Section 91.175(c)).

j. Area Navigation (RNAV) Instrument Approach Charts. Reliance on RNAV systems for instrument approach operations is becoming more commonplace as new systems such as GPS, Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) are developed and deployed. In order to foster and support full integration of RNAV into the National Airspace System (NAS), the FAA has developed a new charting format for RNAV IAP's. (See FIG 5-4-9). This format avoids unnecessary duplication and proliferation of instrument approach charts. The approach minimums for unaugmented GPS (the present GPS approaches) and augmented GPS (WAAS and LAAS when they become operational) will be published on the same approach chart. The approach chart will be titled "RNAV RWY XX." The first RNAV approach charts may appear as stand alone "GPS" procedures, prior to WAAS becoming operational. Accordingly, the minima line associated with WAAS may be marked "NA" until the navigation system is operational. The chart may contain as many as four lines of approach minimums: GLS (Global Navigation Satellite System [GNSS] Landing System); LNAV/VNAV (lateral navigation/vertical navigation); LNAV; and CIRCLING. GLS includes WAAS and LAAS. LNAV/VNAV is a new type of instrument approach with lateral and vertical navigation. RNAV procedures which incorporate a final approach stepdown fix may be published without vertical navigation, on a separate chart, also titled RNAV. During a transition period when GPS procedures are undergoing revision to the new title, both "RNAV" and "GPS" approach charts and formats will be published. ATC clearance for the RNAV procedure will authorize a properly certified pilot to utilize any landing minimums for which the aircraft is certified. The RNAV chart will include formatted information required for quick pilot or flight crew reference located at the top of the chart. This portion of the chart, developed based on a study by the Department of Transportation, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center is commonly referred to as the pilot briefing or EZ Brief.

1. New minima lines will be:

(a) GLS. "GLS" is the acronym for GNSS Landing System; GNSS is the acronym for Global Navigation Satellite System. The minimums line labeled GLS will accommodate aircraft equipped with precision approach capable WAAS receivers operating to their fullest capability. WAAS, as its name implies, augments the basic GPS satellite constellation with additional ground stations and enhanced position/integrity information transmitted from geostationary satellites. This capability of augmentation enhances both the accuracy and integrity of basic GPS, and may support precision (GLS) approach minimums as low as 200-foot height above touchdown (HAT) and 1/2 statute mile (SM) visibility. Publication of the lowest GLS minimums requires that certain interrelated conditions of satellite availability and runway landing environment are met. The suitability of the landing environment to support the lowest landing minimums is determined by the degree of airport compliance with AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design. Precision runway and airport compliance factors include runway marking and lighting, obstacle clearance surfaces, runway length, approach lighting, taxiway layout, etc. Pilots will be informed that all the requirements of the precision runway landing environment are satisfied by the notation "GLS PA" on the first line of minimums in U.S. Government Terminal Procedure Publication charts. Pilots will be informed that not all of the precision runway requirements are met by the notation "GLS" without the letters "PA" on the first line of minimums. In this latter case, the airborne WAAS receiver may be operating in the most capable mode, but since the landing environment does not support the low visibility operations, minimums no lower than 300-foot HAT and 3/4 SM visibility will be published. Since computed glidepath guidance is provided to the pilot, procedure minimum altitude will be published as a Decision Altitude (DA).

(b) LNAV/VNAV identifies minimums developed to accommodate an RNAV IAP with vertical guidance, but with integrity limits larger than a precision approach. LNAV stands for Lateral Navigation; VNAV stands for Vertical Navigation. Aircraft using LNAV/VNAV minimums will descend to landing via an internally generated descent path based on satellite or other approach approved VNAV systems. WAAS equipment may revert to this mode of operation when the signal does not support the highest level of accuracy and integrity. Since electronic vertical guidance is provided, the minima will be published as a DA. Other navigation systems may be specifically authorized to use this line of minima, see Section A, Terms/Landing Minima Data, of the U.S. Terminal Procedures books for a more detailed explanation.

(c) LNAV. This minima is for lateral navigation only, and the approach minimum altitude will be published as a minimum descent altitude (MDA) because vertical guidance is not provided. LNAV provides the same level of service as the present GPS stand alone approaches. LNAV minimums support the following navigation systems: WAAS, when the navigation solution will not support vertical navigation; and, GPS navigation systems which are presently authorized to conduct GPS approaches. The LNAV line on the RNAV chart will allow the present approach certified receivers to fly the new approaches. Existing GPS approaches will be converted to this format. (The receiver must be approved for approach operations in accordance with: AC 20-138, Airworthiness Approval of Global Positioning System (GPS) Navigation Equipment for Use as a VFR and IFR Supplemental Navigation System, for stand-alone TSO-C129 Class A(1) systems; or AC 20-130A, Airworthiness Approval of Navigation or Flight Management Systems Integrating Multiple Navigation Sensors, for GPS as part of a multi-sensor system, qualify for this minima.)

2. Other systems may be authorized to utilize these approaches. See the description in Section A of the U.S. Terminal Procedures books for details. Through a special authorization, aircraft equipped with other IFR approach approved RNAV systems may fly to the LNAV/VNAV and/or LNAV minimums described above. These systems may include aircraft equipped with an FMS that can file /E or /F. Operational approval must also be obtained for BARO-VNAV systems to operate to the LNAV/VNAV minimums. BARO-VNAV may not be authorized on some approaches due to other factors. Pilots are directed to their local Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) for additional information.

RNAV and BARO-VNAV systems must have a manufacturer supplied electronic database which shall include the waypoints, altitudes, and vertical data for the procedure to be flown. The system shall also be able to extract the procedure in its entirety, not just as a series of waypoints.

3. Required Navigation Performance (RNP)

(a) With the widespread deployment of RNAV systems, the advent of GPS, and the imminent implementation of WAAS, greater flexibility in route, procedure, and airspace design is now possible, with an associated increase in navigation accuracy and flight safety. To capitalize on the potential of RNAV systems, the FAA and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) are effecting a shift toward a new standard of navigation and airspace management called RNP.

(b) Navigation systems have typically been described as being sensor specific, such as VOR, NDB, and ILS systems. When RNP is specified, it does not matter what the underlying navigation system or combination of systems is used, provided the aircraft can achieve the required navigation performance. Typically, various sensor inputs are processed by the RNAV system to arrive at a position estimate having a high-statistical degree of accuracy and confidence. RNP is intended to provide a single performance standard that can be used and applied to aircraft and aircraft equipment manufacturers, airspace, planners, aircraft certification and operations, pilots and controllers, and international aviation authorities. RNP can be related to obstacle clearance or aircraft separation requirements to ensure a consistent level of application.

(c) An RNP level or type is applicable to a selected airspace, route, or procedure. The applicable RNP is expressed as a value that represents a distance in nautical miles from the intended position to the actual position of an aircraft. It is within this distance that an aircraft would normally be expected to operate. For general RNAV approach procedures, RNP-0.3 is required.

(d) Pilots are advised to refer to the "TERMS/LANDING MINIMUMS DATA" (Section A) of the U.S. Government Terminal Procedures books for aircraft approach eligibility requirements by specific RNP level requirements. Aircraft meeting RNP criteria will have an appropriate entry, including special conditions and limitations, if any, in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) or its supplement. This will only occur when it has been determined that the aircraft complies with the appropriate provisions of certification.

(e) Some aircraft have RNP approval in their AFM without a GPS sensor. The lowest level of sensors that the FAA will support for RNP service is DME/DME. However, necessary DME NAVAID ground infrastructure may or may not be available at the airport of intended operations. For those locations having an RNAV chart published with LNAV/VNAV minimums, a procedure note may be provided such as "DME/DME RNP-0.3 NA"; this means that RNP aircraft dependent on DME/DME to achieve RNP-0.3 are not authorized to conduct this approach. Where FAA flight inspection successfully determines the availability and geometry of DME facilities will support RNP-0.3 and that the DME signal meets inspection tolerances, a note such as "DME/DME RNP-0.3 Authorized" will appear on the chart. And where DME facility availability is a factor, the note may read "DME/DME RNP-0.3 Authorized; ABC and XYZ Required"; meaning that ABC and XYZ facilities have been determined by flight inspection to be required in the navigation solution to assure RNP-0.3.

4. CHART TERMINOLOGY will change slightly to support the new procedure types.

(a) Decision Altitude (DA) replaces the familiar term Decision Height (DH). DA conforms to the international convention where altitudes relate to MSL and heights relate to AGL. DA will eventually be published for other types of instrument approach procedures with vertical guidance, as well. DA indicates to the pilot that the published descent profile is flown to the DA (MSL), where a missed approach will be initiated if visual references for landing are not established. Obstacle clearance is provided to allow a momentary descent below DA while transitioning from the final approach to the missed approach. The aircraft is expected to follow the missed instructions while continuing along the published final approach course to at least the published runway threshold waypoint or MAP (if not at the threshold) before executing any turns.

(b) Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) has been in use for many years, and will continue to be used for the LNAV only and circling procedures.

(c) Threshold Crossing Height (TCH) has been traditionally used in "precision" approaches as the height of the glide slope above threshold. With publication of LNAV/VNAV minimums and RNAV descent angles, including graphically depicted descent profiles, TCH also applies to the height of the "descent angle," or glidepath, at the threshold. Unless otherwise required for larger type aircraft which may be using the IAP, the typical TCH is 30 to 50 feet.

5. The MINIMA FORMAT will also change slightly.

(a) Each line of minima on the RNAV IAP will be titled to reflect the RNAV system applicable; e.g., GLS, LNAV/VNAV, and LNAV. CIRCLING minima will also be provided.

(b) The minima title box will also indicate the nature of the minimum altitude for the IAP. For example:

(1) DA will be published next to the minima line title for minimums supporting vertical guidance such as for GLS or LNAV/VNAV.

(2) MDA will be published where the minima line supports only lateral guidance. Descent below the MDA, including during the missed approach, is not authorized unless the visual conditions stated in 14 CFR Section 91.175 exist.

(3) Where two or more systems, such as GLS and LNAV/VNAV, share the same minima, each line of minima will be displayed separately.

6. Chart Symbology will change slightly to include:

(a) Descent Profile. The published descent profile and a graphical depiction of the vertical path to the runway will be shown. Graphical depiction of the RNAV vertical guidance will differ from the traditional depiction of an ILS glide slope (feather) through the use of a simple vertical track (no feather).

(1) It is FAA policy to design IAP's with minimum altitudes established at fixes/waypoints to achieve optimum stabilized (constant rate) descents within each procedure segment. This design can enhance the safety of the operations and contribute toward reduction in the occurrence of controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) accidents. Additionally, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recently emphasized that pilots could benefit from publication of the appropriate IAP descent angle for a stabilized descent on final approach. The new RNAV IAP format will, therefore, include the descent angle to the hundredth of a degree; e.g., 3.00 degrees. The angle will be provided in the graphically depicted descent profile.

(2) The stabilized approach may be performed by reference to vertical navigation information provided by WAAS or LNAV/VNAV systems; or for LNAV-only systems, by the pilot determining the appropriate aircraft attitude/groundspeed combination to attain a constant rate descent which best emulates the published angle. To aid the pilot, U.S. Government Terminal Procedures Publication charts publish an expanded Rate of Descent Table on the inside of the back hard cover for use in planning and executing precision descents under known or approximate groundspeed conditions.

(b) Visual Descent Point (VDP). A VDP will be published on most RNAV IAP's. VDP's will apply only to aircraft utilizing LNAV minima, not GLS or LNAV/VNAV minimums.

(c) Missed Approach Symbology. In order to make missed approach guidance more readily understood, a method has been developed to display missed approach guidance in the profile view through the use of quick reference icons. Due to limited space in the profile area, only four or fewer icons can be shown. However, the icon may not provide representation of the entire missed approach procedure. The entire set of textual missed approach instructions are provided at the top of the approach chart in the pilot briefing. (See FIG 5-4-9).

(d) Waypoints. All RNAV or GPS stand-alone IAP's are flown using data pertaining to the particular IAP obtained from an onboard database, including the sequence of all WP's used for the approach and missed approach. Included in the database, in most receivers, is coding that informs the navigation system of which WP's are fly-over (FO) or fly-by (FB). The navigation system may provide guidance appropriately - including leading the turn prior to a fly-by WP; or causing overflight of a fly-over WP. Where the navigation system does not provide such guidance, the pilot must accomplish the turn lead or waypoint overflight manually. Chart symbology for the FB WP provides pilot awareness of expected actions. Refer to the legend of the U.S. Terminal Procedures books.

(e) TAA's are described in paragraph 5-4-5d, Terminal Arrival Areas (TAA's). When published, the new RNAV chart will depict the TAA areas through the use of "icons" representing each TAA area associated with the RNAV procedure. These icons will be depicted in the plan view of the approach chart, generally arranged on the chart in accordance with their position relative to the aircraft's arrival from the en route structure. The WP, to which navigation is appropriate and expected within each specific TAA area, will be named and depicted on the associated TAA icon. Each depicted named WP is the IAF for arrivals from within that area. TAA's may not be depicted on all RNAV procedures because of the inability for ATC to accommodate the TAA due to airspace congestion.

(f) Cold Temperature Limitations. A minimum temperature limitation will be published for each procedure for which BARO-VNAV operations are authorized. This temperature represents the airport temperature below which use of the BARO-VNAV will not be authorized to the LNAV/VNAV minimums. An example limitation will read: "BARO-VNAV NA below -20C(-4F)." This information will be found in the upper left hand box of the pilot briefing.

(g) WAAS Channel Number/Approach ID. The WAAS Channel Number is an equipment optional capability that allows the use of a 5-digit number to select a specific instrument approach procedure. The Approach ID is a unique 4-letter combination for verifying selection of the correct procedure. The WAAS Channel Number and Approach ID will be displayed prominently in the approach procedure pilot briefing. The WAAS Channel Number and Approach ID provide one method available to the pilot for selecting and verifying the approach procedure for the runway of intended landing from the onboard databases. Some equipment may utilize a menu selection method.

(1) The "menu" method. In general, although the steps may vary among equipment types, the pilot first selects the airport of intended landing using the airborne equipment control panel. From a menu that is presented for this airport, the pilot then selects the approach runway. Selecting, from the menu, the Approach ID that matches the Approach ID printed on the approach chart then makes selection of the specific approach procedure. Finally, the pilot activates the procedure by selecting the IAF with which to begin the approach.

(2) 5-Digit Channel Number Method. The pilot enters the unique 5-digit number provided for the approach chart, and the receiver recalls a specific approach procedure from the aircraft database. A list of information including the "Approach ID" and available IAF's is displayed. The pilot confirms the correct procedure is selected by comparing the Approach ID listed with that printed on the approach chart. Finally, the pilot activates the procedure by selecting the appropriate IAF with which to begin the approach.

5-4-6. Approach Clearance

a. An aircraft which has been cleared to a holding fix and subsequently "cleared . . . approach" has not received new routing. Even though clearance for the approach may have been issued prior to the aircraft reaching the holding fix, ATC would expect the pilot to proceed via the holding fix (his/her last assigned route), and the feeder route associated with that fix (if a feeder route is published on the approach chart) to the initial approach fix (IAF) to commence the approach. WHEN CLEARED FOR THE APPROACH, THE PUBLISHED OFF AIRWAY (FEEDER) ROUTES THAT LEAD FROM THE EN ROUTE STRUCTURE TO THE IAF ARE PART OF THE APPROACH CLEARANCE.

b. If a feeder route to an IAF begins at a fix located along the route of flight prior to reaching the holding fix, and clearance for an approach is issued, a pilot should commence the approach via the published feeder route; i.e., the aircraft would not be expected to overfly the feeder route and return to it. The pilot is expected to commence the approach in a similar manner at the IAF, if the IAF for the procedure is located along the route of flight to the holding fix.

c. If a route of flight directly to the initial approach fix is desired, it should be so stated by the controller with phraseology to include the words "direct . . . ," "proceed direct" or a similar phrase which the pilot can interpret without question. When uncertain of the clearance, immediately query ATC as to what route of flight is desired.

d. The name of an instrument approach, as published, is used to identify the approach, even though a component of the approach aid, such as the glideslope on an Instrument Landing System, is inoperative or unreliable. The controller will use the name of the approach as published, but must advise the aircraft at the time an approach clearance is issued that the inoperative or unreliable approach aid component is unusable.

5-4-7. Instrument Approach Procedures

a. Minimums are specified for various aircraft approach categories based upon a value 1.3 times the stalling speed of the aircraft in the landing configuration at maximum certified gross landing weight. In 14 CFR Section 97.3(b) categories are listed as follows:

1. Category A: Speed less than 91 knots.

2. Category B: Speed 91 knots or more but less than 121 knots.

3. Category C: Speed 121 knots or more but less than 141 knots.

4. Category D: Speed 141 knots or more but less than 166 knots.

5. Category E: Speed 166 knots or more.

b. Aircraft approach categories are also discussed in the U.S. Terminal Procedures (commonly called approach plates), which states, among other things, that "An aircraft shall fit in only one category. If it is necessary to maneuver at speeds in excess of the upper limit of a speed range for a category, the minimums for the next higher category should be used." If it is necessary, while circling-to-land, to maneuver at speeds in excess of the upper limit of the speed range for each category, due to the possibility of extending the circling maneuver beyond the area for which obstruction clearance is provided, the circling minimum for the next higher approach category should be used. For example, an aircraft which falls in Category C, but is circling to land at a speed of 141 knots or higher should use the approach category "D" minimum when circling to land.

c. When operating on an unpublished route or while being radar vectored, the pilot, when an approach clearance is received, shall, in addition to complying with the minimum altitudes for IFR operations (14 CFR Section 91.177), maintain the last assigned altitude unless a different altitude is assigned by ATC, or until the aircraft is established on a segment of a published route or IAP. After the aircraft is so established, published altitudes apply to descent within each succeeding route or approach segment unless a different altitude is assigned by ATC. Notwithstanding this pilot responsibility, for aircraft operating on unpublished routes or while being radar vectored, ATC will, except when conducting a radar approach, issue an IFR approach clearance only after the aircraft is established on a segment of a published route or IAP, or assign an altitude to maintain until the aircraft is established on a segment of a published route or instrument approach procedure. For this purpose, the procedure turn of a published IAP shall not be considered a segment of that IAP until the aircraft reaches the initial fix or navigation facility upon which the procedure turn is predicated.

Cross Redding VOR at or above five thousand, cleared VOR runway three four approach.
Five miles from outer marker, turn right heading three three zero, maintain two thousand until established on the localizer, cleared ILS runway three six approach.

The altitude assigned will assure IFR obstruction clearance from the point at which the approach clearance is issued until established on a segment of a published route or IAP. If uncertain of the meaning of the clearance, immediately request clarification from ATC.

d. Several IAP's, using various navigation and approach aids may be authorized for an airport. ATC may advise that a particular approach procedure is being used, primarily to expedite traffic. If issued a clearance that specifies a particular approach procedure, notify ATC immediately if a different one is desired. In this event it may be necessary for ATC to withhold clearance for the different approach until such time as traffic conditions permit. However, a pilot involved in an emergency situation will be given priority. If the pilot is not familiar with the specific approach procedure, ATC should be advised and they will provide detailed information on the execution of the procedure.

AIM, Advance Information on Instrument Approach, Paragraph 5-4-4.

e. At times ATC may not specify a particular approach procedure in the clearance, but will state "CLEARED APPROACH." Such clearance indicates that the pilot may execute any one of the authorized IAP's for that airport. This clearance does not constitute approval for the pilot to execute a contact approach or a visual approach.

f. Except when being radar vectored to the final approach course, when cleared for a specifically prescribed IAP; i.e., "cleared ILS runway one niner approach" or when "cleared approach" i.e., execution of any procedure prescribed for the airport, pilots shall execute the entire procedure commencing at an IAF or an associated feeder route as described on the IAP chart unless an appropriate new or revised ATC clearance is received, or the IFR flight plan is canceled.

g. Pilots planning flights to locations served by special IAP's should obtain advance approval from the owner of the procedure. Approval by the owner is necessary because special procedures are for the exclusive use of the single interest unless otherwise authorized by the owner. Additionally, some special approach procedures require certain crew qualifications training, or other special considerations in order to execute the approach. Also, some of these approach procedures are based on privately owned navigational aids. Owners of aids that are not for public use may elect to turn off the aid for whatever reason they may have; i.e., maintenance, conservation, etc. Air traffic controllers are not required to question pilots to determine if they have permission to use the procedure. Controllers presume a pilot has obtained approval and is aware of any details of the procedure if an IFR flight plan was filed to that airport.

h. When executing an instrument approach and in radio contact with an FAA facility, unless in "radar contact," report passing the final approach fix inbound (nonprecision approach) or the outer marker or fix used in lieu of the outer marker inbound (precision approach).

i. Pilots should not rely on radar to identify a fix unless the fix is indicated as "RADAR" on the IAP. Pilots may request radar identification of an OM, but the controller may not be able to provide the service due either to workload or not having the fix on the video map.

j. If a missed approach is required, advise ATC and include the reason (unless initiated by ATC). Comply with the missed approach instructions for the instrument approach procedure being executed, unless otherwise directed by ATC.

AIM, Missed Approach, Paragraph 5-4-19.
AIM, Missed Approach, Paragraph 5-5-5.

5-4-8. Procedure Turn

a. A procedure turn is the maneuver prescribed when it is necessary to perform a course reversal to establish the aircraft inbound on an intermediate or final approach course. The procedure turn or hold in lieu of procedure turn is a required maneuver. The procedure turn is not required when the symbol "No PT" is shown, when RADAR VECTORING to the final approach course is provided, when conducting a timed approach, or when the procedure turn is not authorized. The hold in lieu of procedure turn is not required when RADAR VECTORING to the final approach course is provided or when "No PT" is shown. The altitude prescribed for the procedure turn is a minimum altitude until the aircraft is established on the inbound course. The maneuver must be completed within the distance specified in the profile view.

1. On U.S. Government charts, a barbed arrow indicates the direction or side of the outbound course on which the procedure turn is made. Headings are provided for course reversal using the 45 degree type procedure turn. However, the point at which the turn may be commenced and the type and rate of turn is left to the discretion of the pilot. Some of the options are the 45 degree procedure turn, the racetrack pattern, the tear-drop procedure turn, or the 80 degree 260 degree course reversal. Some procedure turns are specified by procedural track. These turns must be flown exactly as depicted.

2. When the approach procedure involves a procedure turn, a maximum speed of not greater than 200 knots (IAS) should be observed from first overheading the course reversal IAF through the procedure turn maneuver to ensure containment within the obstruction clearance area. Pilots should begin the outbound turn immediately after passing the procedure turn fix. The procedure turn maneuver must be executed within the distance specified in the profile view. The normal procedure turn distance is 10 miles. This may be reduced to a minimum of 5 miles where only Category A or helicopter aircraft are to be operated or increased to as much as 15 miles to accommodate high performance aircraft.

3. A teardrop procedure or penetration turn may be specified in some procedures for a required course reversal. The teardrop procedure consists of departure from an initial approach fix on an outbound course followed by a turn toward and intercepting the inbound course at or prior to the intermediate fix or point. Its purpose is to permit an aircraft to reverse direction and lose considerable altitude within reasonably limited airspace. Where no fix is available to mark the beginning of the intermediate segment, it shall be assumed to commence at a point 10 miles prior to the final approach fix. When the facility is located on the airport, an aircraft is considered to be on final approach upon completion of the penetration turn. However, the final approach segment begins on the final approach course 10 miles from the facility.

4. A holding pattern in lieu of procedure turn may be specified for course reversal in some procedures. In such cases, the holding pattern is established over an intermediate fix or a final approach fix. The holding pattern distance or time specified in the profile view must be observed. Maximum holding airspeed limitations as set forth for all holding patterns apply. The holding pattern maneuver is completed when the aircraft is established on the inbound course after executing the appropriate entry. If cleared for the approach prior to returning to the holding fix, and the aircraft is at the prescribed altitude, additional circuits of the holding pattern are not necessary nor expected by ATC. If pilots elect to make additional circuits to lose excessive altitude or to become better established on course, it is their responsibility to so advise ATC upon receipt of their approach clearance.

5. A procedure turn is not required when an approach can be made directly from a specified intermediate fix to the final approach fix. In such cases, the term "NoPT" is used with the appropriate course and altitude to denote that the procedure turn is not required. If a procedure turn is desired, and when cleared to do so by ATC, descent below the procedure turn altitude should not be made until the aircraft is established on the inbound course, since some NoPT altitudes may be lower than the procedure turn altitudes.

b. Limitations on Procedure Turns.

1. In the case of a radar initial approach to a final approach fix or position, or a timed approach from a holding fix, or where the procedure specifies NoPT, no pilot may make a procedure turn unless, when final approach clearance is received, the pilot so advises ATC and a clearance is received to execute a procedure turn.

2. When a teardrop procedure turn is depicted and a course reversal is required, this type turn must be executed.

3. When a holding pattern replaces a procedure turn, the holding pattern must be followed, except when RADAR VECTORING is provided or when NoPT is shown on the approach course. The recommended entry procedures will ensure the aircraft remains within the holding pattern's protected airspace. As in the procedure turn, the descent from the minimum holding pattern altitude to the final approach fix altitude (when lower) may not commence until the aircraft is established on the inbound course. Where a holding pattern is established in-lieu-of a procedure turn, the maximum holding pattern airspeeds apply.

AIM, Holding, Paragraph 5-3-7j2.

4. The absence of the procedure turn barb in the plan view indicates that a procedure turn is not authorized for that procedure.

5-4-9. Timed Approaches from a Holding Fix

a. TIMED APPROACHES may be conducted when the following conditions are met:

1. A control tower is in operation at the airport where the approaches are conducted.

2. Direct communications are maintained between the pilot and the center or approach controller until the pilot is instructed to contact the tower.

3. If more than one missed approach procedure is available, none require a course reversal.

4. If only one missed approach procedure is available, the following conditions are met:

(a) Course reversal is not required; and,

(b) Reported ceiling and visibility are equal to or greater than the highest prescribed circling minimums for the IAP.

5. When cleared for the approach, pilots shall not execute a procedure turn. (14 CFR Section 91.175.)

b. Although the controller will not specifically state that "timed approaches are in progress," the assigning of a time to depart the final approach fix inbound (nonprecision approach) or the outer marker or fix used in lieu of the outer marker inbound (precision approach) is indicative that timed approach procedures are being utilized, or in lieu of holding, the controller may use radar vectors to the Final Approach Course to establish a mileage interval between aircraft that will insure the appropriate time sequence between the final approach fix/outer marker or fix used in lieu of the outer marker and the airport.

c. Each pilot in an approach sequence will be given advance notice as to the time they should leave the holding point on approach to the airport. When a time to leave the holding point has been received, the pilot should adjust the flight path to leave the fix as closely as possible to the designated time. (See FIG 5-4-14.)

FIG 5-4-14

Timed Approaches from a Holding Fix

At 12:03 local time, in the example shown, a pilot holding, receives instructions to leave the fix inbound at 12:07. These instructions are received just as the pilot has completed turn at the outbound end of the holding pattern and is proceeding inbound towards the fix. Arriving back over the fix, the pilot notes that the time is 12:04 and that there are 3 minutes to lose in order to leave the fix at the assigned time. Since the time remaining is more than two minutes, the pilot plans to fly a race track pattern rather than a 360 degree turn, which would use up 2 minutes. The turns at the ends of the race track pattern will consume approximately 2 minutes. Three minutes to go, minus 2 minutes required for the turns, leaves 1 minute for level flight. Since two portions of level flight will be required to get back to the fix inbound, the pilot halves the 1 minute remaining and plans to fly level for 30 seconds outbound before starting the turn back to the fix on final approach. If the winds were negligible at flight altitude, this procedure would bring the pilot inbound across the fix precisely at the specified time of 12:07. However, if expecting headwind on final approach, the pilot should shorten the 30 second outbound course somewhat, knowing that the wind will carry the aircraft away from the fix faster while outbound and decrease the ground speed while returning to the fix. On the other hand, compensating for a tailwind on final approach, the pilot should lengthen the calculated 30 second outbound heading somewhat, knowing that the wind would tend to hold the aircraft closer to the fix while outbound and increase the ground speed while returning to the fix.

5-4-10. Radar Approaches

a. The only airborne radio equipment required for radar approaches is a functioning radio transmitter and receiver. The radar controller vectors the aircraft to align it with the runway centerline. The controller continues the vectors to keep the aircraft on course until the pilot can complete the approach and landing by visual reference to the surface. There are two types of radar approaches: Precision (PAR) and Surveillance (ASR).

b. A radar approach may be given to any aircraft upon request and may be offered to pilots of aircraft in distress or to expedite traffic, however, an ASR might not be approved unless there is an ATC operational requirement, or in an unusual or emergency situation. Acceptance of a PAR or ASR by a pilot does not waive the prescribed weather minimums for the airport or for the particular aircraft operator concerned. The decision to make a radar approach when the reported weather is below the established minimums rests with the pilot.

c. PAR and ASR minimums are published on separate pages in the FAA Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP).

1. A PRECISION APPROACH (PAR) is one in which a controller provides highly accurate navigational guidance in azimuth and elevation to a pilot. Pilots are given headings to fly, to direct them to, and keep their aircraft aligned with the extended centerline of the landing runway. They are told to anticipate glide path interception approximately 10 to 30 seconds before it occurs and when to start descent. The published Decision Height will be given only if the pilot requests it. If the aircraft is observed to deviate above or below the glide path, the pilot is given the relative amount of deviation by use of terms "slightly" or "well" and is expected to adjust the aircraft's rate of descent/ascent to return to the glide path. Trend information is also issued with respect to the elevation of the aircraft and may be modified by the terms "rapidly" and "slowly"; e.g., "well above glide path, coming down rapidly." Range from touchdown is given at least once each mile. If an aircraft is observed by the controller to proceed outside of specified safety zone limits in azimuth and/or elevation and continue to operate outside these prescribed limits, the pilot will be directed to execute a missed approach or to fly a specified course unless the pilot has the runway environment (runway, approach lights, etc.) in sight. Navigational guidance in azimuth and elevation is provided the pilot until the aircraft reaches the published Decision Height (DH). Advisory course and glidepath information is furnished by the controller until the aircraft passes over the landing threshold, at which point the pilot is advised of any deviation from the runway centerline. Radar service is automatically terminated upon completion of the approach.

2. A SURVEILLANCE APPROACH (ASR) is one in which a controller provides navigational guidance in azimuth only. The pilot is furnished headings to fly to align the aircraft with the extended centerline of the landing runway. Since the radar information used for a surveillance approach is considerably less precise than that used for a precision approach, the accuracy of the approach will not be as great and higher minimums will apply. Guidance in elevation is not possible but the pilot will be advised when to commence descent to the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or, if appropriate, to an intermediate step-down fix Minimum Crossing Altitude and subsequently to the prescribed MDA. In addition, the pilot will be advised of the location of the Missed Approach Point (MAP) prescribed for the procedure and the aircraft's position each mile on final from the runway, airport or heliport or MAP, as appropriate. If requested by the pilot, recommended altitudes will be issued at each mile, based on the descent gradient established for the procedure, down to the last mile that is at or above the MDA. Normally, navigational guidance will be provided until the aircraft reaches the MAP. Controllers will terminate guidance and instruct the pilot to execute a missed approach unless at the MAP the pilot has the runway, airport or heliport in sight or, for a helicopter point-in-space approach, the prescribed visual reference with the surface is established. Also, if, at any time during the approach the controller considers that safe guidance for the remainder of the approach cannot be provided, the controller will terminate guidance and instruct the pilot to execute a missed approach. Similarly, guidance termination and missed approach will be effected upon pilot request and, for civil aircraft only, controllers may terminate guidance when the pilot reports the runway, airport/heliport or visual surface route (point-in-space approach) in sight or otherwise indicates that continued guidance is not required. Radar service is automatically terminated at the completion of a radar approach.

1. The published MDA for straight-in approaches will be issued to the pilot before beginning descent. When a surveillance approach will terminate in a circle-to-land maneuver, the pilot must furnish the aircraft approach category to the controller. The controller will then provide the pilot with the appropriate MDA.


3. A NO-GYRO APPROACH is available to a pilot under radar control who experiences circumstances wherein the directional gyro or other stabilized compass is inoperative or inaccurate. When this occurs, the pilot should so advise ATC and request a No-Gyro vector or approach. Pilots of aircraft not equipped with a directional gyro or other stabilized compass who desire radar handling may also request a No-Gyro vector or approach. The pilot should make all turns at standard rate and should execute the turn immediately upon receipt of instructions. For example, "TURN RIGHT," "STOP TURN." When a surveillance or precision approach is made, the pilot will be advised after the aircraft has been turned onto final approach to make turns at half standard rate.

5-4-11. Radar Monitoring of Instrument Approaches

a. PAR facilities operated by the FAA and the military services at some joint-use (civil and military) and military installations monitor aircraft on instrument approaches and issue radar advisories to the pilot when weather is below VFR minimums (1,000 and 3), at night, or when requested by a pilot. This service is provided only when the PAR Final Approach Course coincides with the final approach of the navigational aid and only during the operational hours of the PAR. The radar advisories serve only as a secondary aid since the pilot has selected the navigational aid as the primary aid for the approach.

b. Prior to starting final approach, the pilot will be advised of the frequency on which the advisories will be transmitted. If, for any reason, radar advisories cannot be furnished, the pilot will be so advised.

c. Advisory information, derived from radar observations, includes information on:

1. Passing the final approach fix inbound (nonprecision approach) or passing the outer marker or fix used in lieu of the outer marker inbound (precision approach).

At this point, the pilot may be requested to report sighting the approach lights or the runway.

2. Trend advisories with respect to elevation and/or azimuth radar position and movement will be provided.

Whenever the aircraft nears the PAR safety limit, the pilot will be advised that the aircraft is well above or below the glidepath or well left or right of course. Glidepath information is given only to those aircraft executing a precision approach, such as ILS or MLS. Altitude information is not transmitted to aircraft executing other than precision approaches because the descent portions of these approaches generally do not coincide with the depicted PAR glidepath. At locations where the MLS glidepath and PAR glidepath are not coincidental, only azimuth monitoring will be provided.

3. If, after repeated advisories, the aircraft proceeds outside the PAR safety limit or if a radical deviation is observed, the pilot will be advised to execute a missed approach unless the prescribed visual reference with the surface is established.

d. Radar service is automatically terminated upon completion of the approach.

5-4-12. ILS/MLS Approaches to Parallel Runways

a. ATC procedures permit ILS instrument approach operations to dual or triple parallel runway configurations. ILS/MLS approaches to parallel runways are grouped into three classes: Parallel (dependent) ILS/MLS Approaches; Simultaneous Parallel (independent) ILS/MLS Approaches; and Simultaneous Close Parallel (independent) ILS Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) Approaches. (See FIG 5-4-15.) The classification of a parallel runway approach procedure is dependent on adjacent parallel runway centerline separation, ATC procedures, and airport ATC radar monitoring and communications capabilities. At some airports one or more parallel localizer courses may be offset up to 3 degrees. Offset localizer configurations result in loss of Category II capabilities and an increase in decision height (50').

b. Parallel approach operations demand heightened pilot situational awareness. A thorough Approach Procedure Chart review should be conducted with, as a minimum, emphasis on the following approach chart information: name and number of the approach, localizer frequency, inbound localizer/azimuth course, glide slope intercept altitude, decision height, missed approach instructions, special notes/procedures, and the assigned runway location/proximity to adjacent runways. Pilots will be advised that simultaneous ILS/MLS or simultaneous close parallel ILS PRM approaches are in use. This information may be provided through the ATIS.

c. The close proximity of adjacent aircraft conducting simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS and simultaneous close parallel ILS PRM approaches mandates strict pilot compliance with all ATC clearances. ATC assigned airspeeds, altitudes, and headings must be complied with in a timely manner. Autopilot coupled ILS/MLS approaches require pilot knowledge of procedures necessary to comply with ATC instructions. Simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS and simultaneous close parallel ILS PRM approaches necessitate precise localizer tracking to minimize final monitor controller intervention, and unwanted No Transgression Zone (NTZ) penetration. In the unlikely event of a breakout, ATC will not assign altitudes lower than the minimum vectoring altitude. Pilots should notify ATC immediately if there is a degradation of aircraft or navigation systems.

d. Strict radio discipline is mandatory during parallel ILS/MLS approach operations. This includes an alert listening watch and the avoidance of lengthy, unnecessary radio transmissions. Attention must be given to proper call sign usage to prevent the inadvertent execution of clearances intended for another aircraft. Use of abbreviated call signs must be avoided to preclude confusion of aircraft with similar sounding call signs. Pilots must be alert to unusually long periods of silence or any unusual background sounds in their radio receiver. A stuck microphone may block the issuance of ATC instructions by the final monitor controller during simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS and simultaneous close parallel ILS PRM approaches.

AIM, Chapter 4, Section 2, Radio Communications Phraseology and Techniques, gives additional communications information.

e. Use of Traffic Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) provides an additional element of safety to parallel approach operations. Pilots should follow recommended TCAS operating procedures presented in approved flight manuals, original equipment manufacturer recommendations, professional newsletters, and FAA publications.

FIG 5-4-15

Parallel ILS Approaches


5-4-13. Parallel ILS/MLS Approaches (Dependent)
(See FIG 5-4-16.)

FIG 5-4-16

Staggered ILS Approaches


a. Parallel approaches are an ATC procedure permitting parallel ILS/MLS approaches to airports having parallel runways separated by at least 2,500 feet between centerlines. Integral parts of a total system are ILS/MLS, radar, communications, ATC procedures, and required airborne equipment.

b. A parallel (dependent) approach differs from a simultaneous (independent) approach in that, the minimum distance between parallel runway centerlines is reduced; there is no requirement for radar monitoring or advisories; and a staggered separation of aircraft on the adjacent localizer/azimuth course is required.

c. Aircraft are afforded a minimum of 1.5 miles radar separation diagonally between successive aircraft on the adjacent localizer/azimuth course when runway centerlines are at least 2,500 feet but no more than 4,300 feet apart. When runway centerlines are more than 4,300 feet but no more than 9,000 feet apart a minimum of 2 miles diagonal radar separation is provided. Aircraft on the same localizer/azimuth course within 10 miles of the runway end are provided a minimum of 2.5 miles radar separation. In addition, a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or a minimum of three miles radar separation is provided between aircraft during turn on to the parallel final approach course.

d. Whenever parallel ILS/MLS approaches are in progress, pilots are informed that approaches to both runways are in use. In addition, the radar controller will have the interphone capability of communicating with the tower controller where separation responsibility has not been delegated to the tower.

5-4-14. Simultaneous Parallel ILS/MLS Approaches (Independent)
(See FIG 5-4-17.)

FIG 5-4-17

Simultaneous Parallel ILS Approaches


a. System. An approach system permitting simultaneous ILS/MLS approaches to parallel runways with centerlines separated by 4,300 to 9,000 feet, and equipped with final monitor controllers. Simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS approaches require radar monitoring to ensure separation between aircraft on the adjacent parallel approach course. Aircraft position is tracked by final monitor controllers who will issue instructions to aircraft observed deviating from the assigned localizer course. Staggered radar separation procedures are not utilized. Integral parts of a total system are ILS/MLS, radar, communications, ATC procedures, and required airborne equipment. The Approach Procedure Chart permitting simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS approaches will contain the note "simultaneous approaches authorized RWYS 14L and 14R," identifying the appropriate runways as the case may be. When advised that simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS approaches are in progress, pilots shall advise approach control immediately of malfunctioning or inoperative receivers, or if a simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS approach is not desired.

b. Radar Monitoring. This service is provided for each simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS approach to ensure aircraft do not deviate from the final approach course. Radar monitoring includes instructions if an aircraft nears or penetrates the prescribed NTZ (an area 2,000 feet wide located equidistant between parallel final approach courses). This service will be provided as follows:

1. During turn on to parallel final approach, aircraft will be provided 3 miles radar separation or a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical separation. Aircraft will not be vectored to intercept the final approach course at an angle greater than thirty degrees.

2. The final monitor controller will have the capability of overriding the tower controller on the tower frequency.

3. Pilots will be instructed to monitor the tower frequency to receive advisories and instructions.

4. Aircraft observed to overshoot the turn-on or to continue on a track which will penetrate the NTZ will be instructed to return to the correct final approach course immediately. The final monitor controller may also issue missed approach or breakout instructions to the deviating aircraft.



"(aircraft call sign) TURN (left/right) AND RETURN TO THE LOCALIZER/AZIMUTH COURSE."

5. If a deviating aircraft fails to respond to such instructions or is observed penetrating the NTZ, the aircraft on the adjacent final approach course may be instructed to alter course.

"TRAFFIC ALERT (aircraft call sign) TURN (left/right) IMMEDIATELY HEADING (degrees), (climb/descend) AND MAINTAIN (altitude)."

6. Radar monitoring will automatically be terminated when visual separation is applied, the aircraft reports the approach lights or runway in sight, or the aircraft is 1 mile or less from the runway threshold (for runway centerlines spaced 4,300 feet or greater). Final monitor controllers will not advise pilots when radar monitoring is terminated.

5-4-15. Simultaneous Close Parallel ILS PRM Approaches (Independent)
(See FIG 5-4-18.)

FIG 5-4-18

ILS PRM Approaches
(Simultaneous Close Parallel)


a. System. An approach system permitting simultaneous ILS PRM approaches to dual runways with centerlines separated by less than 4,300 feet, and equipped with final monitor controllers. To qualify for reduced lateral runway separation, final monitor controllers must be equipped with high update radar and high resolution ATC radar displays, collectively called a PRM system. The PRM system displays almost instantaneous radar information. Automated tracking software provides monitor controllers with aircraft identification, position, a ten-second projected position, as well as visual and aural controller alerts. The PRM system is a supplemental requirement for simultaneous close parallel approaches in addition to the system requirements for simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS approaches described in paragraph 5-4-14, Simultaneous Parallel ILS/MLS Approaches (Independent). Simultaneous close parallel ILS PRM approaches are identified by a separate Approach Procedure Chart named ILS PRM (Simultaneous Close Parallel). The name ILS PRM is derived from the Precision Runway Monitor System which provides a means for simplifying the name of the simultaneous close parallel ILS approach.

b. Requirements. The following requirements must be met in order to fly an ILS PRM approach:

1. Air carrier pilots (including Part 121 and Part 135) must complete ILS PRM training which includes viewing one of the FAA videos, RDU Precision Runway Monitor: A Pilot's Approach or ILS PRM Approaches, Information for Pilots. Watching one of these videos is strongly recommended for all pilots who wish to fly these approaches.

2. All ATC directed "breakouts," a vector off the ILS prior to the decision altitude (DA), must be hand-flown.

3. If the airport has two tower frequencies operating for each runway, the aircraft flying the ILS PRM approach must have the capability of enabling the pilot/s to listen to two frequencies simultaneously. Pilots shall advise air traffic control within 200 miles of the airport of intended landing if the pilot(s) are not qualified and/or the aircraft is not equipped to fly the approach.

c. Radar Monitoring. Simultaneous close parallel ILS/MLS approaches require final monitor controllers utilize the Precision Runway Monitor system to ensure prescribed separation standards are met. Procedures and communications phraseology are described in paragraph 5-4-14, Simultaneous Parallel ILS/MLS Approaches (Independent). To ensure separation is maintained, and in order to avoid an imminent situation during simultaneous close parallel ILS/MLS approaches, pilots must immediately comply with final monitor controller instructions to avoid an imminent situation. A minimum of 3 miles radar separation or 1,000 feet vertical separation will be provided during the turn on to close parallel final approach courses. In the event of a missed approach, radar monitoring is provided to one-half mile beyond the departure end of the runway. Final monitor controllers will not notify pilots when radar monitoring is terminated.

d. Differences between ILS and ILS PRM approaches of importance to the pilot.

1. Runway Spacing. Prior to ILS PRM approaches, most ATC directed breakouts were the result of two aircraft in trail getting too close together. Two aircraft going in the same direction did not mandate quick reaction times, but two aircraft along side each other separated by less than 4,300 feet and closing at 135 feet per second, does constitute the need for quick action. A blunder has to be recognized by one controller, the information passed on to another controller and breakout instructions issued to the endangered aircraft. The pilot will not have any warning that a breakout is eminent because the blundering aircraft will probably be on another frequency. It is important that when a pilot receives breakout instructions, he/she assumes that a blundering aircraft is heading into his/her approach course and begins the breakout as soon as safety allows.

2. Communications. To help in avoiding communication problems caused by stuck mikes and two parties talking at the same time, two tower frequencies for each runway will be in use during ILS PRM approach operations. The tower controller and the monitor controller will be broadcasting on both of the assigned frequencies. The monitor controller has the capability of overriding the tower controller. The pilots flying the approach will listen to both frequencies and only broadcast on the primary tower frequency. If a breakout is initiated by the monitor controller and the primary frequency is blocked by another transmission, the breakout instruction will be able to be heard on the second frequency. Anti-blocking technology installed in VHF radios might remove the requirement for the second VHF communications frequency in the near future.

3. Hand-flown Breakouts. The use of the autopilot is encouraged while flying an ILS PRM approach, but the autopilot must be disengaged in the rare event that a breakout is issued. Simulation studies of breakouts have shown that a handflown breakout is initiated consistently faster than a breakout performed using the autopilot.

4. TCAS. TCAS II equipped aircraft will fly the ILS PRM approach with the TCAS set to the Traffic Advisory (TA) only mode. If the TCAS is set to the TA/Resolution Advisory (RA) mode there is a chance that the TCAS resolution advisory will be in conflict with the breakout instruction and result in a confusing situation during a critical time. Pilots must remember to switch back to the TA/RA mode after completing the breakout maneuver.

5. Descending Breakouts. In the past, breakout descents were rarely given to pilots when flying on the lLS localizer and glideslope. A greater chance exists for the controller to issue a descending breakout when there is a blundering aircraft from an adjacent approach course crossing an aircraft's path. Pilots must be aware that a descending breakout is a possibility. In no case will the controller descend an aircraft below the Minimum Vectoring Altitude (MVA) which will provide at least 1,000 feet clearance above obstacles. The pilot is not expected to exceed 1,000 feet per minute rate of descent in the event a descending breakout is issued.

5-4-16. Simultaneous Converging Instrument Approaches

a. ATC may conduct instrument approaches simultaneously to converging runways; i.e., runways having an included angle from 15 to 100 degrees, at airports where a program has been specifically approved to do so.

b. The basic concept requires that dedicated, separate standard instrument approach procedures be developed for each converging runway included. Missed Approach Points must be at least 3 miles apart and missed approach procedures ensure that missed approach protected airspace does not overlap.

c. Other requirements are: radar availability, nonintersecting final approach courses, precision (ILS/MLS) approach systems on each runway and, if runways intersect, controllers must be able to apply visual separation as well as intersecting runway separation criteria. Intersecting runways also require minimums of at least 700 foot ceilings and 2 miles visibility. Straight in approaches and landings must be made.

d. Whenever simultaneous converging approaches are in progress, aircraft will be informed by the controller as soon as feasible after initial contact or via ATIS. Additionally, the radar controller will have direct communications capability with the tower controller where separation responsibility has not been delegated to the tower.

5-4-17. Side-step Maneuver

a. ATC may authorize a nonprecision approach procedure which serves either one of parallel runways that are separated by 1,200 feet or less followed by a straight-in landing on the adjacent runway.

b. Aircraft that will execute a side-step maneuver will be cleared for a specified nonprecision approach and landing on the adjacent parallel runway. Example, "cleared ILS runway 7 left approach, side-step to runway 7 right." Pilots are expected to commence the side-step maneuver as soon as possible after the runway or runway environment is in sight.

c. Landing minimums to the adjacent runway will be based on nonprecision criteria and therefore higher than the precision minimums to the primary runway, but will normally be lower than the published circling minimums.

5-4-18. Approach and Landing Minimums

a. Landing Minimums. The rules applicable to landing minimums are contained in 14 CFR Section 91.175.

b. Published Approach Minimums. Approach minimums are published for different aircraft categories and consist of a minimum altitude (DA, DH, MDA) and required visibility. These minimums are determined by applying the appropriate TERPS criteria. When a fix is incorporated in a nonprecision final segment, two sets of minimums may be published: one for the pilot that is able to identify the fix, and a second for the pilot that cannot. Two sets of minimums may also be published when a second altimeter source is used in the procedure. When a nonprecision procedure incorporates both a stepdown fix in the final segment and a second altimeter source, two sets of minimums are published to account for the stepdown fix and a note addresses minimums for the second altimeter source.

FIG 5-4-19

Final Approach Obstacle Clearance


c. Obstacle Clearance. Final approach obstacle clearance is provided from the start of the final segment to the runway or missed approach point, whichever occurs last. Side-step obstacle protection is provided by increasing the width of the final approach obstacle clearance area. Circling approach protected areas are defined by the tangential connection of arcs drawn from each runway end. The arc radii distance differs by aircraft approach category. Because of obstacles near the airport, a portion of the circling area may be restricted by a procedural note: e.g., "Circling NA E of RWY 17-35." Obstacle clearance is provided at the published minimums for the pilot that makes a straight-in approach, side-steps, circles, or executes the missed approach. Missed approach obstacle clearance requirements may dictate the published minimums for the approach. (See FIG 5-4-19.)

d. Straight-in Minimums are shown on the IAP when the final approach course is within 30 degrees of the runway alignment (15 degrees for GPS IAP's) and a normal descent can be made from the IFR altitude shown on the IAP to the runway surface. When either the normal rate of descent or the runway alignment factor of 30 degrees (15 degrees for GPS IAP's) is exceeded, a straight-in minimum is not published and a circling minimum applies. The fact that a straight-in minimum is not published does not preclude pilots from landing straight-in if they have the active runway in sight and have sufficient time to make a normal approach for landing. Under such conditions and when ATC has cleared them for landing on that runway, pilots are not expected to circle even though only circling minimums are published. If they desire to circle, they should advise ATC.

e. Side-Step Maneuver Minimums. Landing minimums for a side-step maneuver to the adjacent runway will normally be higher than the minimums to the primary runway.

f. Circling Minimums. In some busy terminal areas, ATC may not allow circling and circling minimums will not be published. Published circling minimums provide obstacle clearance when pilots remain within the appropriate area of protection. Pilots should remain at or above the circling altitude until the aircraft is continuously in a position from which a descent to a landing on the intended runway can be made at a normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers. Circling may require maneuvers at low altitude, at low airspeed, and in marginal weather conditions. Pilots must use sound judgment, have an indepth knowledge of their capabilities, and fully understand the aircraft performance to determine the exact circling maneuver since weather, unique airport design, and the aircraft position, altitude, and airspeed must all be considered. The following basic rules apply:

1. Maneuver the shortest path to the base or downwind leg, as appropriate, considering existing weather conditions. There is no restriction from passing over the airport or other runways.

2. It should be recognized that circling maneuvers may be made while VFR or other flying is in progress at the airport. Standard left turns or specific instruction from the controller for maneuvering must be considered when circling to land.

3. At airports without a control tower, it may be desirable to fly over the airport to observe wind and turn indicators and other traffic which may be on the runway or flying in the vicinity of the airport.

g. Instrument Approach at a Military Field. When instrument approaches are conducted by civil aircraft at military airports, they shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures and minimums approved by the military agency having jurisdiction over the airport.

5-4-19. Missed Approach

a. When a landing cannot be accomplished, advise ATC and, upon reaching the missed approach point defined on the approach procedure chart, the pilot must comply with the missed approach instructions for the procedure being used or with an alternate missed approach procedure specified by ATC.

b. Protected obstacle clearance areas for missed approach are predicated on the assumption that the missed approach is initiated at the decision height (DH) or at the missed approach point and not lower than minimum descent altitude (MDA). A climb of at least 200 feet per nautical mile is required, unless a higher climb gradient is published on the approach chart. Reasonable buffers are provided for normal maneuvers. However, no consideration is given to an abnormally early turn. Therefore, when an early missed approach is executed, pilots should, unless otherwise cleared by ATC, fly the IAP as specified on the approach plate to the missed approach point at or above the MDA or DH before executing a turning maneuver.

c. If visual reference is lost while circling-to-land from an instrument approach, the missed approach specified for that particular procedure must be followed (unless an alternate missed approach procedure is specified by ATC). To become established on the prescribed missed approach course, the pilot should make an initial climbing turn toward the landing runway and continue the turn until established on the missed approach course. Inasmuch as the circling maneuver may be accomplished in more than one direction, different patterns will be required to become established on the prescribed missed approach course, depending on the aircraft position at the time visual reference is lost. Adherence to the procedure will assure that an aircraft will remain within the circling and missed approach obstruction clearance areas. (See FIG 5-4-20.)

d. At locations where ATC radar service is provided, the pilot should conform to radar vectors when provided by ATC in lieu of the published missed approach procedure. (See FIG 5-4-21.)

e. When approach has been missed, request clearance for specific action; i.e., to alternative airport, another approach, etc.

FIG 5-4-20

Circling and Missed Approach Obstruction Clearance Areas


FIG 5-4-21

Missed Approach


5-4-20. Visual Approach

a. A visual approach is conducted on an IFR flight plan and authorizes a pilot to proceed visually and clear of clouds to the airport. The pilot must have either the airport or the preceding identified aircraft in sight. This approach must be authorized and controlled by the appropriate air traffic control facility. Reported weather at the airport must have a ceiling at or above 1,000 feet and visibility 3 miles or greater. ATC may authorize this type approach when it will be operationally beneficial. Visual approaches are an IFR procedure conducted under IFR in visual meteorological conditions. Cloud clearance requirements of 14 CFR Section 91.155 are not applicable, unless required by operation specifications.

b. Operating to an Airport Without Weather Reporting Service. ATC will advise the pilot when weather is not available at the destination airport. ATC may initiate a visual approach provided there is a reasonable assurance that weather at the airport is a ceiling at or above 1,000 feet and visibility 3 miles or greater (e.g. area weather reports, PIREP's, etc.).

c. Operating to an Airport With an Operating Control Tower. Aircraft may be authorized to conduct a visual approach to one runway while other aircraft are conducting IFR or VFR approaches to another parallel, intersecting, or converging runway. When operating to airports with parallel runways separated by less than 2,500 feet, the succeeding aircraft must report sighting the preceding aircraft unless standard separation is being provided by ATC. When operating to parallel runways separated by at least 2,500 feet but less than 4,300 feet, controllers will clear/vector aircraft to the final at an angle not greater than 30 degrees unless radar, vertical, or visual separation is provided during the turn-on. The purpose of the 30 degree intercept angle is to reduce the potential for overshoots of the final and to preclude side-by-side operations with one or both aircraft in a belly-up configuration during the turn-on. Once the aircraft are established within 30 degrees of final, or on the final, these operations may be conducted simultaneously. When the parallel runways are separated by 4,300 feet or more, or intersecting/converging runways are in use, ATC may authorize a visual approach after advising all aircraft involved that other aircraft are conducting operations to the other runway. This may be accomplished through use of the ATIS.

d. Separation Responsibilities. If the pilot has the airport in sight but cannot see the aircraft to be followed, ATC may clear the aircraft for a visual approach; however, ATC retains both separation and wake vortex separation responsibility. When visually following a preceding aircraft, acceptance of the visual approach clearance constitutes acceptance of pilot responsibility for maintaining a safe approach interval and adequate wake turbulence separation.

e. A visual approach is not an IAP and therefore has no missed approach segment. If a go around is necessary for any reason, aircraft operating at controlled airports will be issued an appropriate advisory/clearance/instruction by the tower. At uncontrolled airports, aircraft are expected to remain clear of clouds and complete a landing as soon as possible. If a landing cannot be accomplished, the aircraft is expected to remain clear of clouds and contact ATC as soon as possible for further clearance. Separation from other IFR aircraft will be maintained under these circumstances.

f. Visual approaches reduce pilot/controller workload and expedite traffic by shortening flight paths to the airport. It is the pilot's responsibility to advise ATC as soon as possible if a visual approach is not desired.

g. Authorization to conduct a visual approach is an IFR authorization and does not alter IFR flight plan cancellation responsibility.

AIM, Canceling IFR Flight Plan, Paragraph 5-1-13.

h. Radar service is automatically terminated, without advising the pilot, when the aircraft is instructed to change to advisory frequency.

5-4-21. Charted Visual Flight Procedure (CVFP)

a. CVFP's are charted visual approaches established for environmental/noise considerations, and/or when necessary for the safety and efficiency of air traffic operations. The approach charts depict prominent landmarks, courses, and recommended altitudes to specific runways. CVFP's are designed to be used primarily for turbojet aircraft.

b. These procedures will be used only at airports with an operating control tower.

c. Most approach charts will depict some NAVAID information which is for supplemental navigational guidance only.

d. Unless indicating a Class B airspace floor, all depicted altitudes are for noise abatement purposes and are recommended only. Pilots are not prohibited from flying other than recommended altitudes if operational requirements dictate.

e. When landmarks used for navigation are not visible at night, the approach will be annotated "PROCEDURE NOT AUTHORIZED AT NIGHT."

f. CVFP's usually begin within 20 flying miles from the airport.

g. Published weather minimums for CVFP's are based on minimum vectoring altitudes rather than the recommended altitudes depicted on charts.

h. CVFP's are not instrument approaches and do not have missed approach segments.

i. ATC will not issue clearances for CVFP's when the weather is less than the published minimum.

j. ATC will clear aircraft for a CVFP after the pilot reports siting a charted landmark or a preceding aircraft. If instructed to follow a preceding aircraft, pilots are responsible for maintaining a safe approach interval and wake turbulence separation.

k. Pilots should advise ATC if at any point they are unable to continue an approach or lose sight of a preceding aircraft. Missed approaches will be handled as a go-around.

5-4-22. Contact Approach

a. Pilots operating in accordance with an IFR flight plan, provided they are clear of clouds and have at least 1 mile flight visibility and can reasonably expect to continue to the destination airport in those conditions, may request ATC authorization for a contact approach.

b. Controllers may authorize a contact approach provided:

1. The contact approach is specifically requested by the pilot. ATC cannot initiate this approach.

Request contact approach.

2. The reported ground visibility at the destination airport is at least 1 statute mile.

3. The contact approach will be made to an airport having a standard or special instrument approach procedure.

4. Approved separation is applied between aircraft so cleared and between these aircraft and other IFR or special VFR aircraft.

Cleared contact approach (and, if required) at or below (altitude) (routing) if not possible (alternative procedures) and advise.

c. A contact approach is an approach procedure that may be used by a pilot (with prior authorization from ATC) in lieu of conducting a standard or special IAP to an airport. It is not intended for use by a pilot on an IFR flight clearance to operate to an airport not having a published and functioning IAP. Nor is it intended for an aircraft to conduct an instrument approach to one airport and then, when "in the clear," discontinue that approach and proceed to another airport. In the execution of a contact approach, the pilot assumes the responsibility for obstruction clearance. If radar service is being received, it will automatically terminate when the pilot is instructed to change to advisory frequency.

5-4-23. Landing Priority

A clearance for a specific type of approach (ILS, MLS, ADF, VOR or Straight-in Approach) to an aircraft operating on an IFR flight plan does not mean that landing priority will be given over other traffic. ATCT's handle all aircraft, regardless of the type of flight plan, on a "first-come, first-served" basis. Therefore, because of local traffic or runway in use, it may be necessary for the controller in the interest of safety, to provide a different landing sequence. In any case, a landing sequence will be issued to each aircraft as soon as possible to enable the pilot to properly adjust the aircraft's flight path.

FIG 5-4-22

Overhead Maneuver



5-4-24. Overhead Approach Maneuver

a. Pilots operating in accordance with an IFR flight plan in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) may request ATC authorization for an overhead maneuver. An overhead maneuver is not an instrument approach procedure. Overhead maneuver patterns are developed at airports where aircraft have an operational need to conduct the maneuver. An aircraft conducting an overhead maneuver is considered to be VFR and the IFR flight plan is cancelled when the aircraft reaches the initial point on the initial approach portion of the maneuver. (See FIG 5-4-22.) The existence of a standard overhead maneuver pattern does not eliminate the possible requirement for an aircraft to conform to conventional rectangular patterns if an overhead maneuver cannot be approved. Aircraft operating to an airport without a functioning control tower must initiate cancellation of an IFR flight plan prior to executing the overhead maneuver. Cancellation of the IFR flight plan must be accomplished after crossing the landing threshold on the initial portion of the maneuver or after landing. Controllers may authorize an overhead maneuver and issue the following to arriving aircraft:

1. Pattern altitude and direction of traffic. This information may be omitted if either is standard.


2. Request for a report on initial approach.


3. "Break" information and a request for the pilot to report. The "Break Point" will be specified if nonstandard. Pilots may be requested to report "break" if required for traffic or other reasons.

BREAK AT (specified point).