Spinning (Cylinder-) Wings  -  The Magnus - Robbins Effect

The effect on a spinning cylinder or sphere moving through a fluid, in which force acts perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the direction of spin. Applied to aeronautics in experimental wingforms, the Magnus Theory states that if air is directed against a smooth, revolving cylinder, whose circumferential speed is greater than that of the air current, a force is directed against one side of the cylinder - air compressed on one side and vacuum formed on the other - creating lift. Named after physicist Heinrich Gustav Magnus (1802-70).

Built in 1930 (USA), the 921-V is reported to have been flown at least once - ending it's short career with a crash landing. Three cylinders with disks performing as winglets driven by a separate engine. Information on this design needed! It's probably the only aircraft equipped with cylinder wings which made it into the air.

Cyclogyro 1933: Rotorcraft based on experiments in Germany by Adolf Rohrbach with paddle-wheel wing arrangement. Oscillating winglets went from positive to negative angles of attack during each revolution to create lift, and their eccentric mounting would in theory produce any combination of horizontal and vertical forces. Still, there is no record of this idea ever flying.

Rahn Aircraft Corp, Brooklyn NY 1935. Rotating-wing experiment with 240 hp supercharged Wright Whirlwind. Two 6' rotating wings on each side theoretically would cause the plane to rise or descend vertically, or fly laterally without a conventional propeller up to 100 mph, but it is unrecorded if this 15'-long creation ever accomplished any of these feats.

Union Aircraft Co, Long Island NY. Rotorplane 1931.

Four conical rotors in an open frame replaced the wings; rotors were driven by two additional 28 hp Indian motors. An experiment based on the Magnus Theory to create lift. Although the designer claimed it had double the lifting power of conventional wings and could land at half the speed, there is no record of flight.