Lockheed C-141 Starlifter

President John F. Kennedy's first official act after his inauguration was to order the development of an all-jet transport to extend the reach of the nation's military forces. Lockheed's C-141 StarLifter was the result.

The C-141 Starlifter is the workhorse of the Air Mobility Command. The Starlifter fulfils the vast spectrum of airlift requirements through its ability to airlift combat forces over long distances, inject those forces and their equipment either by airland or airdrop, re-supply employed forces, and extract the sick and wounded from the hostile area to advanced medical facilities.

The C-141B is a stretched C-141A with in-flight refuelling capability. Stretching of the Starlifter consisted of lengthening the plane 23 feet, 4 inches (53.3 centimetres), which increased cargo capacity by about one-third - 2,171 extra cubic feet (65.13 extra cubic meters). Lengthening of the aircraft had the same effect as increasing the number of aircraft by 30 percent. The C-141 was the first jet aircraft designed to meet military standards as a troop and cargo carrier.

A universal air refuelling receptacle on the C-141B transfers 23,592 gallons (89,649.6 litres) of fuel in about 26 minutes, allowing longer non-stop flights and fewer fuel stops during worldwide airlift missions. The C-141 force, nearing seven million flying hours, has a proven reliability and long-range capability.

The Starlifter, operated by the Air Mobility Command, can airlift combat forces, equipment and supplies, and deliver them on the ground or by airdrop, using paratroop doors on each side and a rear loading ramp. It can be used for low-altitude delivery of paratroops and equipment, and high-altitude delivery of paratroops. It can also airdrop equipment and supplies using the container delivery system. It is the first aircraft designed to be compatible with the 463L Material Handling System, which permits off-loading 68,000 pounds (30,600 kilograms) of cargo, refuelling and reloading a full load, all in less than an hour.

The C-141 has an all-weather landing system, pressurized cabin and crew station. Its cargo compartment can easily be modified to perform around 30 different missions. About 200 troops or 155 fully equipped paratroops can sit in canvas side-facing seats, or 166 troops in rear-facing airline seats. Rollers in the aircraft floor allow quick and easy cargo pallet loading. A palletized lavatory and galley can be installed quickly to accommodate passengers, and when palletized cargo is not being carried, the rollers can be turned over to leave a smooth, flat surface for loading vehicles.

In its aeromedical evacuation role, the Starlifter can carry about 103 litter patients, 113 ambulatory patients or a combination of the two. It provides rapid transfer of the sick and wounded from remote areas overseas to hospitals in the United States.

The Air Force Reserve, through its associate units, provides 50 percent of the Starlifter's airlift crews, 40 percent of its maintenance capability and flies more than 30 percent of Air Mobility Command's peacetime worldwide missions.

The first Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units to receive the C-141 as unit equipment became operational in fiscal 1987. The units are located at Jackson, Miss., and Andrews Air Force Base, Md.

During Desert Shield and Desert Storm, a C-141 from the 437th Military Airlift Wing, Charleston AFB, S.C., was the first American aircraft into Saudi Arabia, transporting an Airlift Control Element from the 438th Military Airlift Wing, McGuire Air Force Base, N.J. In the following year, the C-141 completed the most airlift missions - 7,047 out of 15,800 - supporting the Gulf War. It also carried more than 41,400 passengers and 139,600 tons (125,690 metric tons) of cargo.

The first C-141A, delivered to Tinker AFB, Okla., in October 1964, began squadron operations in April 1965. Soon, Starlifters made flights almost daily to Southeast Asia, carrying troops, equipment and supplies, and returning patients to U.S. hospitals.

Several C-141s have been modified to carry the Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missile in its special container, up to a total weight of 92,000 pounds (41,400 kilograms). Some C-141s have been equipped with intra-formation positioning sets that enable a flight of two to 36 aircraft to maintain formation regardless of visibility. The C-141 was the first jet transport from which U.S. Army paratroopers jumped, and the first to land in the Antarctic. A C-141 established a world record for heavy cargo drops of 70,195 pounds (31,587.7 kilograms).

Service Life
The first C-141B was received by the Air Force in December 1979. Conversion of 270 C-141s from A to B models was completed in 1982. C-141 modifications aim to preserve the remaining force by reliability and maintainability improvements and capability improvements necessary for effective use through 2006. Thirteen aircraft will receive additional SOLL II upgrades under the Special Operations Forces Improvement program. Sixty-three aircraft in the current C-141 fleet will undergo major modification. Each will receive the All Weather Flight Control System (AWFCS) consisting of a digital autopilot, advanced avionics display, and Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS). Other major improvements include a Defensive Systems (DS), Fuel Quantity Indicating System, and GPS modifications. As a general rule, these 63 aircraft are the "youngest" (fewest equivalent damage hours) in the fleet and will carry the weapon system through programmed retirement in 2006.

All Weather Flight Control System (AWFCS) The AWFCS modification is necessitated to alleviate reliability and maintainability problems presently being experienced due to the aging (or rather aged) avionics systems on the C-141. The system's functionality includes: autopilot, autothrottle, yaw damping, ground collision warning, primary flight instrument display, and warning display. LRUs installed by this modification (4 6x8" AMLCD Display Units (DUs), 2 Automatic Flight Control Processors (AFCPs), 2 Display Processor Units (DPUs), and 2 Display Avionics Management Units) replace approximately 19 antiquated LRUs, Indicators, and Controls. Additionally, a new Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) and Multi-function Standby Airspeed/Attitude/Altitude Indicator (w/independant airdata source) are installed during this modification.
GPS Enhanced Navigation System (GPSENS) GPSENS integrates into the AWFCS aircraft to provide GPS based navigation and centralized and consolodated control of the majority of aircraft communication and navigation equipment via 3 Multifunction Control Display Units and 2 Navigational Processors. The Fuel Saving Advisory System (FSAS) LRUs are removed and their functionality is rehosted within the Nav. Processors.

Digital Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) The new digital FQIS provides a display of fuel quantity in the same manner as the old analog system - one indicator for each tank and a totalizer to sum each individual tank reading (except in a digital format vs the analog dail). All components and wiring of the old system are replaced when the new system is installed. A complete aircraft kit consists of 11 Digital Fuel Qauntity Indicators (one part number which is interchangeable for all tank indicator positions and totalizer), 68 Full Height Compensated (FHC) Fuel Probes, and associated wiring. BIT capabilities facilitate ease of maintenance and trouble shooting.

Airlift Defensive System (ADS) ADS provides C-141 aircraft with a common self-protection capability against shoulder fired man portable Surface-to-Air Missile threat.

L-Band Satcom System Operating on the Inmarsat and GPS satellites with interconnection to international telex, fax and switched data networks, the L-Band Satcom system provides automatic (and manual) data reporting and message transfer of position reports, performance data and operational messages on a 24 hour global basis. Coverage is provided from sea level to 55,000 feet from 70 degrees north to 70 degrees south.

Interim GPS Provisions The C-141 aircraft is equipped with provisions to allow the use of hand-held GPS equipment. Power and antenna access plugs are located at the aft end of the centre pedestal. Hand-held GPS units in use consist of the Precise Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) and the Bendix-King KLX-100 (Comm functions not allowed for on-aircraft use).

Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Current plans include the installation of a TCAS on the C-141 aircraft.

Recently, the C-141 went through a series of major repairs. Wing Station 405, windshield post crack repairs and centre wing box repair/replacement are complete. As the aircraft continues to age, it is quite possible new structural problems may limit the readiness of the force. To slow aircraft aging of the active duty fleet, 56 PAI aircraft have been transferred to the UE Guard and Reserve as of FY95. Additionally, the process of retiring high flight hour equivalent aircraft will culminate with the retirement of the entire AMC active duty fleet by FY03.

Origin: USA
Type: strategic troop/cargo transport
Max Speed: 492 kt / 567 mph
Max Range 4,723 km / 2,935 miles
Dimensions: span 48.74 m / 159 ft 11 in
length 51.29 m / 168 ft 3.5 in
height 11.96 m / 39 ft 3 in
Weight: empty 677,186 kg / 148,120 lb
max. take-off 155,582 kg / 343,000 lb
Powerplant: four 9526-kg (21,000-lb) dry thrust Pratt & WhitneyTF33-7 turbofans
Armament: none