A cold start stresses the
engine, the starter, and the battery. Engines and their accessories should
be preheated below 20-degrees F. You control only the fuel/air mixture.
Only atomized fuel can be made explosive. Cold fuel does not evaporate as
well as warm fuel so more time is needed to create the starting mixture.
Pre-oil if you can by gaining access to interior of engine through an
accessory port. Otherwise, pull the plugs and spray an oil mist into
cylinders. Now turn by hand to get oil pressure.
After starting fly for at least an hour to make sure all moisture is
Turn the cold engine over a couple of times with the fuel off to clear the
induction system. Next use the primer to put fuel into the induction
system. This pump has jets that spray fuel into the intake manifold. Do
not pump the throttle since pumping the throttle squirts a stream of gas
upwards only to drip back down. This fuel can drip down and cause a engine
fire if ignited by a backfire.
A cold start begins with
two to three pumps of the primer. Lock the primer. Wait two to three
minutes to allow the cold fuel to vaporize. As you begin to turn over the
engine give a quick pump of the throttle.
If your engine does not
have a throttle accelerator pump, you should leave the primer unlocked and
fully extended ready to pump. Pull the throttle all the way out to 'choke'
the engine. As soon as you turn over the engine give the primer pump a
quick shot to enrich the mixture and lock it.
You can use two 100 watt
trouble lights inserted up through the cowl flap. This arrangement can
give you > about a 40-degree temperature rise (use caution that the lights
cannot break or damage any wiring or oil and fuel lines). Regardless of
the system you use always pre-heat with an engine cowl blanket installed,
this helps keep the heat around the engine."
Cold Weather Flying
1. Have a new CO patch in the
2. Confirm with your mechanic that the muffler is o.k.
3. Winterize your engine and pre-heat your start (Drill out breather tube)
4. Provide for cockpit survival. with survival clothing
5. Check static and pitot for ice
6. Make sure quick-drains drain
7. Consider warming battery
8. Remove ALL ice, snow and frost.
Use a garbage bag filled with 10 or so gallons of hot water, knot
the top and then wipe the top of the frost. This melts the frost and
polishes it. As it re-freezes, the airfoil shape is maintained. Usually
end up using 4 or 5 refills, and couple new bags, takes about 10 to 15
Cold Flight Checklist
1. Only fly into improving
2. Know where to go to escape
3. Keep alternatives available
4. Runway lengths, surface and widths become critical
1. Because of the cold the cold
weather pilot tends to abbreviate the preflight. Don't!
2. Look for fuel dye as indicative of fuel leaks.
3. Keeping the tanks full keeps out moisture.
4. Ice in fuel looks like floating dust.
5. Check engine cylinders and exhaust fittings for white stains.
6. Prime 50% more than normal when it's cold and 100% if really cold.
7. Use manufacturer's recommendations for cold weather operations
8. If heat baffles are used check their security. Is a baffle called for
over the oil cooler?
9. Let engine warm up until oil thins out and pressure is normal.
10. Crankcase breather hose and system must be free of moisture.
11. Hoses, flexible tubing and seals become brittle in cold
12. Battery and charging system should be in good condition
13. A cold battery will be weakened unless fully charged
14. Cold oil will be more viscous (thick)
15. Control cables' lubricants will congeal. Check throttle and CH.
16. Don't use anything that works on an automobile to remove ice
17. Deicing fluids cause corrosion and leave unpleasant residue
18. Keep fuel tanks full and protect against contamination. Super-cooled
fuel can create ice crystals and a rough engine. C.H. helps.
19. Preheat engine and cockpit prior to start when 10-degrees F. Heat
under constant attendance and not directly on surfaces.
20. Store in heated hanger until just before departure
21. Don't let water get on hinges or movable parts.
22. Clean and dry pitot tubes, heater intake, carburetor intake, control
surfaces and wheels.
23. Melt ice and remove all moisture, which may freeze again. Use hot
water bottles or double-bagged plastic bags and plenty of dry towels
24. Check weep-holes under aircraft and drain interior moisture.
25. Confirm fuel selector is not frozen in one position.
26. CO detectors are recommended in addition to heater inspection
1. Thirty seconds of cranking = 50 hours flight time wear
2. Phone your destination just prior to departure
3. Plan to walk home.
4. Electrical loads will be heavier.
5. Don't set parking brakes, hot brakes will freeze solid.
6. Idle at higher rpm to keep plugs from fouling and oil hot
7. Normal engine temperatures are required to evaporate moisture in
8. Change tanks more often so that maximum fuel is available. Fuel
selector might freeze.
9. Flooded? Mixture out, throttle full. Crank 20 seconds.
10. Fuel/air more reluctant to ignite. Carburetor heat may be required for
11. Don't use throttle to over prime (two strokes maximum). Use engine
primer, not throttle.
12. Most common cause of aircraft engine fires is prime with throttle
13. Prime only with primer. Over priming can be harmful.
14. If RPM rises when carburetor heat is applied it means that air filter
15. Don't try to force the warm-up
16. Gyros will need to warm up and speed up, too
17. Control cables will be tighter and stiff
18. Don't hand prop.
19. Keep wheels and brakes as dry as possible
20. May need to remove and dry plugs if engine fires only briefly.
21. Use radios only after electrical system has run a few minutes.
22. Braking may be poor to nil
23. Oil must be hot to perform properly. More viscous (thick) oil requires
more cranking energy
24. Fix problems early before they become 'unfixable'.
25. Consider landing gear up
26. Use C. H. in icing range
27. Use C. H on approach and descent
28. Keep power up during descents and extend any drag that may be
available. This will keep the engine warmer.
29. Taxi slowly, wheel bearings may be frozen, brakes may not hold.
30 Don't use flaps if tailplane icing is at all likely.
31. Don't use brakes until tires are on hard surface. Be prepared for
ineffective braking. Touchdown areas of runways are more slippery.
1. Performance on runway may be less.
2. Reduce crosswind capability by 50% for snow and 75% for ice
3. On getting airframe ice, change altitude.
4. Climb through ice at high speed and shallow angle.
5. Descend through ice at lower speed but high rate of descent.
6. Climb above wet snow and freezing rain.
7. Reduced windshield transparency makes surfaces appear lower than they
are. 5-degree slope errors are common.
8. If your planned altitude is within 4000' of z-level anticipate ice.
9. Plan an alternate route around convective weather.
10. Know the "times" as they apply to your flight. (fuel, battery, speed,
11. Set power at cruise and don't change anything. Thus, if anything
changes it means there is a change in power. Suspect carburettor or
1. Ramp operations can cause 'black ice' problems for taxiing.
2. Weather systems move more quickly in winter. Fast-moving winter systems
create turbulence and hazardous conditions.
3. Just because no ice is forecast doesn't mean there won't be any.
4. If you are flying in air only 10 degrees above z-level anticipate ice.
5. Freezing weather can make a survivable problem non-survivable
6. Where is the good weather?
7. Expect strong winds from the wrong direction
8. Snow changes the way things look
9. Light icing over a time is a serious problem
10. Ice usually exists under snow.
11. Moisture on runway that gets on aircraft may freeze when airborne.
12. Clouds dropping rain have less ice potential than do those without
13. Top portions of clouds contain supercooled droplets.
Icing and PIREPs
Perhaps the reason there is a
significant shortage of PIREPs is because not many pilots fly in the
weather likely to make a PIREP important. PIREPs are especially good when
they are about icing and turbulence but they are often just a snapshot and
lose validity unless the pilot can fill in the whole picture. According to
FAR 91.183 an encounter with unforecast icing requires a PIREP. The giving
of a PIREP should be an independent communication and not given as a part
of routine route information. The rate of ice accumulation is more
important than the kind of ice. The AIM has an ice accumulation rate table
which for accuracy must be judged by someone who flies only in ice.
Flight in Icing
All exterior sensors, pitot,
static, and stall warning will be degraded as to sensing ability and
accuracy. Antennae efficiency can be changed. Propeller unbalance is common. Fly at
faster speeds than normal in climb, descent and especially landing. Most
icing happens in visible moisture with temperature between zero and -14 C.
Less than 10% of ice accidents occurred when ice was worse than forecast.
No aircraft is certified to fly in moderate freezing rain. Any flight into
forecast icing is considered by the FAA as a violation of FARs 91.9 and
91.13. by exceeding operating limitations and being careless and reckless.
As ice accumulates and lift decreases, the pilot must increase the angle
of attack to retain lift for level flight. In this condition ice begins to
accumulate beneath the wind and tail surfaces. You can't see ice below the
wing in many aircraft. Any de-ice capability should be used only to escape
the icing, not to continue the flight. You cannot afford to be casual
while operating in ice. You need to be current in your skills related to
unusual attitude recovery.
Carburettor ice is far more likely to occur and cause an accident than is
airframe icing. 51% of icing accidents are caused by carburettor ice or
induction system ice. The cause of this ice is the failure of the pilot to
ANTICIPATE the possibility of ice by applying full carburettor heat and
alternate air. The fixed pitch plane will develop a rough engine while the
constant speed plane is going to show a drop in rpm. Under icing the C. H.
will increase the roughness of the engine. Leave it on. Use alternate air
one-hundred-eighty turn is on record as having saved more lives than
governmental inertia have killed.
1. Visible rain at below freezing temperatures
2. Splashing or splattering rain drops at below freezing temperatures
3. As for immediate priority ATC handling
4. Avoid abrupt or excessive manoeuvres.
5. No autopilot
6. Reduce angle of attack if aircraft tends to roll
7. Do not extend flaps
8. Do not retract flaps if extended.
9. Report conditions to ATC
10. Structural icing is least likely to occur in high clouds since they
are formed mostly of ice crystals.
11. An encounter with ice pellets is indicative of freezing rain above.
12. You know that if you fly into rain that freezes on impact that the
temperature is warmer at a higher altitude.
13. If you encounter wet snow, you known that the temperature is warmer
14. A surface inversion is most frequently produced by terrestrial
radiation on a clear calm night.
15. The surface temperature being below the dew point with the air and dew
point below freezing causes Frost. Water vapour then sublimates directly
as white and opaque ice crystals or frost.
16. Whenever icing is a hazard it will be forecast in sigmets and airmets.
17. Standing lenticular clouds are indicative of severe turbulence.
This stall can occur when ice
accumulates on the bottom of the horizontal tail surfaces to such an
extent that the flow
of air ceases to give the required download. The tail stall occurs on the
bottom side of the horizontal tail surface.
This lack of airflow can be even further reduced with the application of
flaps and an increase in airspeed. Flaps will increase the downwash angle
of the over tail air stream and increase the negative angle of attack.
This can result in an abrupt nose down attitude and descent. The recovery
is completely different from a normal stall recovery. Flaps are removed.
Power is reduced and the yoke is pulled back. Pipers are subject to this
more than Cessnas.
The do not use flaps if icing exists or is suspected. You will not be able
to see ice on the bottom of the horizontal tail
but any ice accumulation will occur there first. Fly the approach at a
speed that will account for ice created drag but
not extra fast that will increase the downwash on the tail surface. More
downwash increases the tail stall possibility. So long as airflow stays
attached to the bottom of the tail, it is flying. You will have control
and down pressure from the tail.
The full stall does not occur until both the low-pressure (top) of the
wing and the (bottom) of the tail surfaces lose all their lift. This doesn't happen. With all low pressure surfaces having
some effect the aircraft does not go straight down. The tail is being held
down by low pressure below the horizontal tail surfaces. With ice on this
surface it will
have reduced effectiveness and power. If flaps move the centre of lift for
the wings backward an abrupt nose down pitch is most likely to occur.
The tailplane will collect ice more readily than the wing. The collected
ice will more adversely affect the tail-plane's downward loading than
would the same amount of ice on the wing. Ice may be on the tail before
appearing on the
wing. Boot deicing on the tailplane is less effective than on the wing. An
icing tailplane stall may be unrecoverable. The icing you get may be
quite different from the icing used for certification. The tailplane may
be colder than the
outside air temperature (OAT)
Advice: Don't use flaps if you suspect ice. Don't mess with ice. If the
freezing level is on the ground, you won't be able to descend to warmer
Combine high-tech and traditional materials. It is easier to keep
warm by wearing multiple layers. Inner lawyer should not absorb moisture
and wick it away from the body. 1/4 of body head leaves via the head.
Waterproof headgear may be the most important single survival item.
Pilots are optimists that believe bad things happen to other people. They
believe that flying is so safe that there is no need to be prepared for
catastrophe. Before leaving home you should prepare the 'what if' options.
Whenever you go flying you should be dressed to walk home. You should have
required items within cockpit reach. You should stay with aircraft and
survive until conditions allow foraging. Short-term rescue is usually
within a day. The greatest danger is exposure to conditions causing
hypothermia. The right condition of wind, temperature, and moisture can
expose anyone to hypothermia. The body loses heat most rapidly when wet.
Making your position visible can help rescue. Make a clearing, start a
fire, and make large SOSs. Use common sense, have confidence in yourself
and be patient. Prior planning, preparedness, practice and training will
enable you to make the best decision possible.
Pilots fail more frequently than do any other facet of aviation.
Living with Weather Delays
Enjoy the weather delays they are going to occur more often than
1. Take a ground, simulator, or local flight lesson.
2. Make new friends
3. Visit the local ATC facilities
4. Go to an alternate airport and rent a car.
5. Now you have time to visit the local tourist trap.
6. A gambling casino can't be far.
7. Shopping is always an alternative
8. Look at the weather and be thankful you're down instead of up.
Certain trips require better weather management than others.
Understanding the weather you get is far more important than just making a
collection of weather elements. A failure to understand mean that flight
planning may proceed when it should be delayed, moved faster or skipped
The preflight weather planning is the time to make flight decisions. Based
on what you know about the weather you must decide if you are capable of
making the flight in the face of forecast weather, terrain, and available
Once underway you are more in need of real-time weather. This means you
will contact every HIWAS, ATIS, AWOS, ASOS and Flight Watch along the way.
You will seek PIREPS because they are the most real-time weather you'll
ever get. You will give PIREPS and stay in contact with Centre where you
can get CWAs (Centre Weather Advisories) and CWSUs. Don't delay asking for
help such as higher, lower, vectors, nearest airport.
Fog occurs when the air close to the ground reaches the dew point.
Of the basic types of fog, radiation fog is the most common. Radiation fog
forms on clear nights since clouds tend to warm the earth and air.
Radiation fog is
usually less than 300 feet thick. A light wind tends to make the fog even
thicker. The rising sun lifts the fog and eventually breaks through. Any
moisture on the earth evaporates and creates more fog. For this reason it
is not unusual to have radiation last all day.
Advection fog comes with the on shore winds as it blows across a colder
surface and causes humid air to form fog. This fog is then blown or more
likely 'sucked' inland as a layer of fog over the earth. This fog first
covers the lowlands and can then be forced over hills and mountains as
When a moist front arrives the associated rain can form precipitation fog.
If the air is near freezing this front will form ice fog. In some
circumstances the start of an engine can provide the needed moisture to
create ice fog.
Use POH to set manufacturers requirements
Get a cylinder head temperature gauge
Modify crankcase breather system
Check hose lines for flexibility
Check heater system
Get electronic monoxide detector
Get maintenance check of control cable tension
Do not feather propellers that may not unfeather
Keep battery fully charged or remove for warm storage
--Remove wheel pants
Do not recycle wet landing gear
Refill tanks immediately after landing
Refuel only when aircraft is level
Check quality of fuel
Imitation chamois will not filter water from fuel
Use only aviation approved filters
Have quick drains on all tanks
Inability to drain well may be indicative of ice in fuel.
Use anti-ice additives
Use proper heater to preheat engine compartment
Do not put heat directly on accessories
Store in heated hangar if available
Check POH procedures
Congealed oil and grease can affect engine and controls
Turn by hand before trying starter
Avoid over priming
Have fire guard present
On first try water/ice may condense on sparkplugs. Removal necessary.
Idle at RPM sufficient to warm plugs
Use carburettor heat to help vaporize fuel
Allow to warm up before use
Heated hangar is best option
Do NOT use water
Don't fly until all snow and ice is removed
Check all openings and intakes
Check all controls
Check fuel vents
Braking may be nil
Ice exists below snow layer
Check ski shock cords and safety cables
Get help when taxiing down wind
Control surfaces will be ineffective
Cold weather both helps and hurts G.A. flying
Engine power increases 1 percent for each 10 degrees below standard
40 degrees of temperature can give a 10 percent power increase at normal
With reciprocating engines, use carburettor heat as required.
In some cases it is necessary to use carburettor heat to vaporize the
Gasoline does not vaporize as readily at very cold temperatures.
Do not use carburettor heat in such a manner that it raises the mixture
temperature barely to freezing or just a little below. In such cases, it
may be inducing carburettor icing.
It may be advisable to use carburettor heat on takeoff in very cold
An accurate mixture temperature gauge is a good investment for cold
weather operation. It may be best to use carburettor heat on takeoff in
very cold weather.
Do not over-boost supercharged engines
Turn on pitot heat
With engine baffles the engine will overheat on climb-out
The three types form between 32 and 80 degrees F even when visible
moisture does not exist. When visible moisture exists the formation can
occur between 15 and 32 degrees F. Partial throttle operation is the most
critical time. Use carburettor heat prior to power reduction and use power
during descents to maintain carburettor heat effectiveness.
Moist air between 15-32 F on air scoops throttle plates
Worst at 25F
Forms throughout when moist air freezes through vaporization
Usually between 40 and 80 degrees F and relative humidity over 50%
Forms at or near throttle valve. Freezes due to venturi effect cooling
by 5 degrees
Dangerous temperatures from 32 to 37 F
Ground check CH prior to takeoff
Use heat when carburettor temperature gauge is in the icing range.
Use heat on approach and descent
Signs of Ice
Loss of RPM or manifold pressure
Apply full carburettor heat
Expect engine to run rougher until ice melts
Snow, Ice, or Frost on the
Never attempt to takeoff with any ice or frost on the aircraft
Ice and frost can cause an aircraft to have sudden and violent stall
Any stall caused by ice or frost may be unrecoverable
Below a layer of snow on the aircraft there is probably a layer of ice
Any ice caused roughness of the upper wing will cause a 10 percent
increase in the stall speed
If airborne, any turbulence could result in an unrecoverable stall
Any precipitation that changes the wing's surface will increase the
Flight should not be attempted where the wing's surface has been
Stall speed and stall characteristics are determined with clean
In icing conditions the usual cues for stalls and control problems may
Once stalled recovery may not be possible.
At best, large losses of altitude can be expected.
Only rapid and positive applications of power and AOA have any chance
against configurations causing up to 50kts increase in stall speed.
Any use of the autopilot is likely to conceal icing problems.
If weather briefing includes chance or reported icing…Don't go.
Avoidance begins with preflight planning
Don't fly winter fronts
It's worse over high terrain
0 to -10 C-degrees gives clear ice
-10 to -20 C-degrees gives rime ice
Freezing drizzle is worse that freezing rain.
180 is usually best decision
Pitot heat, C.H. and alternate air
What Is Icing?
Timely evasive action is the best option
Ice will be on the tail when you see it elsewhere.
Do not slow down nor use flaps when ice may be on the tail.
Have an Icing checklist the includes pitot heat and alternate air for
There is no FAR that prohibits a Part 91 from flying in icing
If your aircraft has a placard, marking of AFM limits flying in ice,
don't fly in ice.
AFM in the limitations section precudes flight into known icing.
A PIREP is the only way that a pilot can know of 'known icing'.
When the tops and bottoms of clouds exceed 4000' there is ice in there.
When freezing level is below the clouds there is ice in the clouds.
You can usually evade ice by changing altitude.
Waiting to change altitude is not an option.
Levels of Icing
Trace---you can see it but it does not sublimate nor accumulate
Light--In an hour the increase in ice would be a problem.
Moderate--accumulation rate requires diversion immediately.
Severe---You should have never entered the conditions.
If You Can't Avoid Ice
1/32 of ice on wing can reduce climb rate by 300fpm
Outside air temperature is critical from 0 to 20 below
Watch small-radius parts of the aircraft
Know your minimum enroute altitudes
Get on top as soon as you can, stay there as long as you can
Don't fly into a front or low pressure area
Be on the ground at night
Make a 180
Cycle the propeller to throw off ice
Avoid the cloud tops
Fly faster without flaps
Flight into icing is based
upon maximum continuous and maximum intermittent icing conditions in mist
conditions at icing conditions. No certification exists for flight in
freezing drizzle or rain. Fly as fast as you can.
The air comes in through the nose of the aircraft as allowed by
the cowling baffling. A flexible tube guides the air into the metal outer
cover or shroud around the aircraft muffler. The region between the
muffler and the shroud has a
series of thin metal partitions that absorb the heat from the muffler and
allows the ram air to flow and absorb the heat. This air is safely
separated from the poisonous carbon monoxide passing through the muffler
and exhaust pipe. When the cabin heat control is pulled it opens a door
that allows the heated air from the interior of the shrouded area to enter
the cabin by way of selected vents. If a leak should occur, and it can,
the use of the cabin heater could
allow carbon monoxide to enter the cabin and incapacitate or kill the
occupants. The odour of other engine gases other than carbon monoxide is a
clue that there is a leak. Carbon monoxide has no odour.
Snow Rhymes with No
When bad weather conditions
are approaching, the sooner you leave the better.
Don't let ATC procedures delay a departure likely to be made hazardous
by approaching conditions.
A negative for snow is that it often has ice beneath.
--Most winter ground accidents are caused by snow banks and berms created
Snow reduces visibility more than rain does.
Be prepared to use full control deflection when dealing with snow on the
When snow covers the nosewheel 1/3 of the way consider inability to
Snow storms average a life of 18 hours from first to last flake.
Snow ploughing begins with the longest runway, then taxiways and the
ramp. G.A is always last.
Cold fronts move behind the thunderstorms
Warm fronts cause stratus, rain and low ceilings
Winter cold/warm fronts have close temperatures
Flying hazard is turbulence, winds, and clear icing near cold fronts.
The speed of the front movement directly related to wind velocity and
extent of turbulence.
Winter warm fronts have terrible flying weather including freezing rain
Winter warm fronts have rime icing in stratus clouds.
Occluded front is two fronts with the worst weather of both relatively
Tops of winter clouds are lower and can be overflown.
Snow that is melting gives rise to severe fog conditions.
North-eastern movement of lows make that side a bad place to fly.
Northeast side of a low is a no-fly zone.
--Freezing level is region of freezing rain and clear ice.
Worst airframe icing occurs at -2 to - 5 degrees Celsius
If aircraft is capable, freezing layer is 1000 feet thick. Turning is
best option to avoid precipitation.
Three number code identifies type of front, intensity and trend
Flying in Cold Conditions
Weather is more likely to
clear than during summer.
Total operation of aircraft is more efficient in cold weather when in
Ground operations are more difficult.
Keep your headset and flashlights warm.
A low battery can freeze.
A clogged oil breather can cause engine failure through loss of oil.
Daylight starts later and ends sooner. Carry more flashlights.
Thunderstorms are less likely.
Don't get into an airplane with snow adhering to you or your clothing.
Carry survival equipment
The worst wear occurs in the first few seconds of engine operation
before oil becomes effective.
Preheating of the engine is the preferred way to get near instant oil
For most situations an engine and oil heating system is better than just
engine or oil heating.
There are harmful effects to heating anything but the entire engine at
the same time.
There are many negatives to continuous preheating.
--Break engine oil by rotating propeller if preheating is not available.
Fuel gets thicker and less volatile when cold. Warm the whole aircraft.
Wear appropriate clothing and shoes. Sleeping bag may be needed.
Silicone spray can keep propeller ice-free for a while.
Deice hinges and check control cables for free movement.
Cockpit engine controls must be free…check/
Turn on pitot heat during preflight to confirm operation and melt any
Heating the cockpit includes the instruments with bearings subject to
damage due to cold.
Another opinion is that more prime is required when cold.
Check alternate air as part of preflight.
Expect reluctance of engine to start, frosted spark plugs, and a weak
Some find Continentals easier to start than Lycomings in cold weather.
When cranking have the primer out and ready to give a squirt when/if the
Taxiing with any form of moisture on the pavement can induce loss of
Much of the hazard of snow on the ground is what it covers. Ice is
Light frost can reduce lifting capability of a wing by 30 percent.
Depth perception is greatly compromised when snow covers everything.
Under certain combination of snow on the ground and clouds in the sky
where will be no horizon.
A flying arrival into colder conditions means actual altitude is lower
than indicated altitude.
Proper crosswind control positions are more vital than ever on a slick
Ice with water on top is the most dangerous condition whether taxiing or
Dew on the pavement can cause viscous slipperiness and reverted rubber
Reverted rubber hydroplaning leaves a white skid mark. Runway has been
steam cleaned by friction.
A worn tire hydroplanes more quickly than a new tire.
Braking is best with a 20 percent rolling skid.
A crosscut grooving of 1/4 inch slots gives a wet runway dry runway
(mix of glycol and alcohol)
Very expensive liquid ($22 per gallon) and spreading system costs
$25,000+ per aircraft
Flows and protects entire aircraft from adhering ice.
Better than rubber boot systems
When It Gets Cold
Use lighter oil
Expect control cables to be slack.
Check breather tubes for frozen condensation
Use pitot heat to check for ice in pitot tube
Keep a full charge in the battery
Consider the use of Prist to prevent fuel icing
Remove pants with snow on the ground.
Take our time and do a complete preflight
Carry a winter survival kit.
Carry bright plastic marker material
Keep your warm covers in arms reach.
Have a carbon monoxide monitor
Preflight inside the hangar
Check hoses for flexibility and security
Check tires and pressure
Wipe the propeller with anti-ice fluid
Preheat engine and cockpit
Give the engine plenty of warm-up time
Slow to very slow taxiing
Keep weight off nose wheel
Avoid downwind taxiing
Consider not retracting gear.
If you use heater, open the air vents.
Avoid snow and ice when landing
Reduce takeoff roll by using flaps
Stay in ground effect until Vx.
Monitor flight watch to keep track of the weather
Any flight into icing is illegal.
Fly with pitot heat on.
Climbing is your first choice when in icing
Avoid steep angles of attack when climbing to avoid icing under flying
Tops of clouds containing ice are higher near the centre of the
Don't use your autopilot in icing conditions
Don't delay declaring an emergency
To descend keep power up to insure engine warming
Use full carburettor heat to enrich mixture
Avoid using flaps but increase descent speed
Blowing snow destroys depth perception
At -30F ice fog will form over the runway
Make approach 20/30 knots faster than usual when carrying ice
Use flaps unless airframe icing exists.
Make soft field landing with power on.
Avoid braking on rollout
--Keep full fuel aboard
Cover engine, vents and pitot.
Consider draining oil or light in engine compartment
Always shutdown using mixture
Use of electric hair dryer to
warm engine during cold weather.
Do not ever hand prop an aircraft in the winter for many reasons
---Warm up the cockpit before takeoff if you want to rely on your
Expect stronger en route headwinds and crosswinds on landing ---Beware
of tendency to over-prime in cold weather which is a fire hazard (review
Snow covers most landmark references used in flying
Check with destination airport for runway snow conditions since NOTAMS
may not be current.
Dress for survival and have a winter survival kit.