Aeronautical knowledge, skill and judgment have been considered the three
essential faculties that pilots must possess to be professional in the execution
of their duties. The knowledge and skill have been taught in ground school and
flight training programs, but decision making skills have usually been
considered a trait that pilots innately possess or that is acquired through
experience. In fact, good decision making skills can also be taught.
Training in decision making skills is being introduced as a part of the pilot
training program. Pilots can learn good judgment just as thoroughly as they
learn the mechanical concepts and basic skills of flying. But what is good
judgment? It is the ability to make an instant decision which assures the safest
possible continuation of the flight.
"Pilot judgment is the process of recognizing and analyzing all available
information about oneself, the aircraft and the flying environment, followed by
the rational evaluation of alternatives to implement a timely decision which
maximizes safety. Pilot judgement thus involves one's attitudes toward
risk-taking and one's ability to evaluate risks and make decisions based upon
one's knowledge, skills and experience. A judgment decision always involves a
problem or choice, an unknown element, usually a time constraint, and stress. "
(Transport Canada: Judgment Training Manual).
The causal factor in about 80% to 85% of civil aviation accidents; is the
human element, in other words, pilot error, a poor decision or a series of poor
decisions made by the pilot-in-command. This concept is known as the poor
judgment chain. One poor decision increases the probability of another and as
the poor judgment chain grows, the probability of a safe flight decreases. The
judgment training program teaches techniques; for breaking the chain by teaching
the pilot to, recognize the combination of events that result in an accident and
to deal with the situation correctly in time to prevent the accident from
How a pilot handles his or her responsibilities as a Pilot depends on
attitude. Attitudes are learned. They can be developed through training into a
mental framework that encourages good pilot judgment.
The pilot decision making training program is based on recognition of five,
Anti-authority. This attitude is common in those who do not like anyone
telling them what to do.
Resignation. Some people do not see themselves as making a great deal of
difference in what happens to them and will go along with anything that
Impulsivity. Some people need to do something, anything, immediately
without stopping to think about what is the best action to take.
Invulnerability. Some people feel that accidents happen to other people
but never to themselves. Pilots who think like this are more likely to take
Macho. Some people need to always prove that they are better than anyone
else and take risks to prove themselves and impress others.
Pilots who learn to recognize these hazardous attitudes in themselves can
also learn how to counteract them, can learn to control their first instinctive
response and can learn to make a rational judgment based on good common
The DECIDE acronym was developed to assist a pilot in the
decision making process.
D - detect change.
E - estimate the significance of the change.
C - choose the outcome objective.
l - identify plausible action options.
D - do the best action.
E - evaluate the progress.
Using the DECIDE process requires the pilot to contemplate the outcome of the
action taken. The successful outcome should be the action that will result in no
damage to the aircraft or injury to the occupants.
When a pilot receives a license to fly, he is being given the privilege to
use public airspace and air navigation facilities. He is expected to adhere to
the rules and to operate an aircraft safely and carefully. He is expected to use
good judgment and act responsibly. Decision- making is a continuous adjustive
process that starts before take-off and does not stop until after the final
landing is made safely. Positive attitudes toward flying, learned judgment
skills, will improve a pilot's chances of having a long and safe flying
human factors summary
The human factor is the most flexible, adaptable and valuable part of the
aviation system. but it is also the most vulnerable to influences which can
adversely affect its performance. Optimising the role of people in the aviation
environment involves ail aspects of human performance and behaviour: decision
making, the design of displays and controls and the cabin layout, and even the
design of aircraft operating manuals, checklists and computer software.
Human factors is about people in their living and working situations, about
their relationships with machines, with procedures, with the environment about
them and with other people.
In most cases, accidents result from performance errors made by healthy and
properly certificated individuals. The sources of some of these errors may be
traced to poor equipment or procedure design or to inadequate training or
operating instructions. Reduced levels of human performance capability and
limitations in human behaviour result in less than optimum performance
There would appear to be a direct relationship between workload and
performance. At low levels of workload, such as during the cruise phase of long
haul flights, performance is poor and the ability to react in an emergency is
potentially negatively affected. The standard of performance increases as
workload increases up to an optimum level of workload and performance. At
extremely high levels of workload (overload), performance is again jeopardized.
In the aviation industry, the concept of workload is of primary importance
to-ensure that the demands of the task never exceed the capabilities of the
Recognition of human factors; is based on the effectiveness, the safety and
the efficiency of the system and on the well being of crew members.
The central figure in the human factors equation is the pilot, or other crew
member, who is the most critical but also the most flexible component of the
system. However, people have limitations and are subject to considerable
variations in performance.
Design of cockpit space is important to pilot performance. Comfortable seats
designed to fit the human body, instrument displays designed to match the
sensory and information processing characteristics of the user, controls with
standardized movement, coding and location, are recognized as important factors
in providing a compatible and comfortable working environment. Ail too often,
pilot error can be attributed to knobs and levers that are, poorly located, that
operate differently from one airplane to another, that are improperly coded.
The non- physical aspects, such as procedures, manuals and checklists,
symbology and computer programs, are responsible for delays and errors if these
are confusing, misleading or excessively cluttered in their presentation and
The effect of environmental factors, such as noise, heat, lighting and
vibration, are recognized as causal factors in human error. More serious
problems are associated with disturbed biological rhythms and related sleep
disturbance and deprivation. The body operates on a circadian, or 24 hour,
rhythm which is related to the earth's rotation time. It is maintained
principally by the cycles of light and darkness, but also by meals and physical
and social activities. Safety, efficiency and well being are affected by the
disturbed pattern of biological rhythms occasioned by long range flight,
irregular schedules and late night flights. Long distance trans-meridian air
travel, especially, is responsible for sleep disturbance, disruption of eating
and elimination habits that result in lassitude, anxiety, irritability and
depression, ail symptoms of what is commonly called jet lag. Wide differences
are found amongst individuals in their ability to sleep out of phase with their
biological rhythms. The use of drugs or tranquillizers; to induce sleep is not
recommended as they have a lasting adverse effect on later performance. The use
of alcohol is also not recommended since it is a drug, a depressant and, while
it does induce sleep, it interferes with deep sleep.
Traditionally, crew members have been trained individually and it was assumed
that individually proficient crew members; would be proficient and effective
members of a crew team. However, flight crews function as groups and group
influences play a role in determining behaviour and performance. Leadership, crew
cooperation, teamwork and personality interaction are vital factors; in cockpit
resource management. Training programs aimed at increasing the co-operation and
communication between crew members; are vital in ensuring efficient and safe
airplane operation. Cockpit resource management training focuses on the
functioning of the flight crew as an intact team and provides; opportunities for
crew members; to practice their skills together. The program teaches crew
members how to use their own personal and leadership styles in ways to foster