type / class / instrument rating skill tests and proficiency checks

With effect from the 1 January 1999 aeroplane ratings, tests, etc changed because of the introduction of JAR-FCL. The following paragraphs detail the requirements for various SPA Type/Class/Instrument Ratings

Definitions

Skill Test - The demonstration of skill for licence or rating issue, including such examination as the examiner may require

Proficiency Check - The demonstration of skill to re-validate or renew ratings and including such oral examination as the examiner may require

Re-validation - The action taken within the period of validity of a rating or approval that allows the holder to continue to exercise the privileges of a rating or approval for a further specified period

Renewal - The action taken after a rating or approval has lapsed that renews the privileges of the rating or approval for a further specified period. The normal renewal requirement is to meet the re-validation requirements for the lapsed rating. Where the rating has lapsed by more than 5 years the CAA may impose a training requirement in addition to the flight test. The examiner can issue a new rating certificate

Single-Pilot Aeroplane (SPA) - Aeroplanes certified for operation by one pilot

Multi-Pilot Aeroplane (MPA) - Aeroplanes certified for operation with a minimum crew of at least 2 pilots

Rating - An entry in a licence stating special conditions, privileges or limitations pertaining to that licence

PPL (A) Skill Test (For initial issue of a PPL)

Conducted by a Flight Examiner (FE)

CAA Form FCL 684 (Application and Report Form for the PPL Aeroplane Skill Test) shall be used to record the result of the test for the initial issue of a PPL (A)

On completion of a successful test the examiner will complete the FCL 684 and pass it to the candidate/FTO to forward to CAA PLD. If 2 or more sections are failed then the test is failed. A notification of failure will be issued to the candidate along with a recommendation of further training. The candidate may or may not complete this training prior to a further test

A partial pass will be given if one section is failed on the test. The candidate will be required to pass the failed section and sections 1 and 4 in the second attempt. Failure of any of these sections in the second attempt will result in a failed test

A failed second attempt at the test will result in the candidate having to complete mandatory training as advised by the examiner. Logbook evidence of having completed the mandatory training duly certified by the CFI will be required prior to another attempt at all the sections of the test

The test may be flown as 2 separate flights but both flights must be conducted by the same examiner

All ground training, synthetic flight training (if applicable) and flight training must be completed before taking the skill test

Section 1 Departure
Pre-flight including documentation, weather, mass and balance, performance calculations
Pre-start external/internal checks
Starting engine(s)
Taxiing
Power and Take-off checks
After take-off checks
Aerodrome departure procedures
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 2 Airwork
Straight and level
Slow flight
Climbing (best rate/angle)
Medium turns (30 AOB)
Recognition and recovery from spiral dive
Steep turns (360 at 45 AOB)
Full clean stall and recovery
Approach to the stall with 10-30 AOB approach configuration/power
Approach to the stall in landing configuration
Descending (power on/power off)
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 3 En-Route Procedures
Flight plan, dead reckoning and map reading
Maintenance of altitude, heading and speed
Orientation, timing and revision of ETAs, log keeping
Diversion to alternate aerodrome, planning and implementation
Use of radio navigation aids position fix and tracking
Basic instrument flying (180 turn in simulated IMC)
Flight management (flight log, routine checks, carb icing, etc)
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 4 Approach and Landing Procedures
Aerodrome arrival procedures
Precision (short field), crosswind (if suitable conditions exist) and flapless landing
Touch and go
Go-around from low height
ATC, radio procedures
Action after flight including documentation
 
Section 5 Abnormal and Emergency Operation
Simulated EFATO (SE only)
Simulated forced landing (SE only)
Simulated precautionary landing (SE only)
Simulated emergencies
 
Section 6 Simulated Asymmetric Flight (if applicable) and Relevant Class/Type Rating Items
This section may be combined with sections 1 through 5
Simulated engine failure during take-off (at a safe height)
Asymmetric approach and go-around
Asymmetric approach and full-stop landing
Engine shutdown and restart
Any relevant items of class/type including: handling of the autopilot, pressurisation system, de-icing, etc
Oral questions
ATC, radio procedures
 
References:
LASORS
CAA Standards Documents 19 and 20

Skill Test (To add a new rating to an existing licence)

Conducted by a Flight Examiner (FE) or Class Rating Examiner (CRE) who must hold IR re-validation privileges if an IR is to be re-validated at the same time

CAA Form LST SPA (Licensing Skill Test Single-Pilot Aeroplanes) shall be used to record both the training and skill test items

An IR re-validation, if required, may be flown as part of this test but can be flown separately

On completion of a successful check the examiner will complete the LST SPA and pass it to the candidate/FTO to forward to CAA PLD

If 2 or more sections are failed the test is failed and the examiner will issue a notification of failure. The candidate cannot exercise the privileges of the relevant rating(s) until a further Skill Test is passed

A partial pass will be given if one section is failed on the test. The candidate will be required to pass the failed section in the second attempt. Failure of any of this section in the second attempt will result in a failed test

A failed second attempt at the test will result in the candidate having to complete mandatory retraining as advised by the examiner. Logbook evidence of having completed the mandatory retraining duly certified by the CFI will be required prior to another attempt at all the sections of the test

All ground training, synthetic flight training (if applicable) and flight training must be completed before taking the skill test

Section 1 Departure
Pre-flight including documentation, weather, mass & balance
Pre-start external/internal checks
Starting engine(s) normal and malfunctions
Taxiing
Power and Take-off checks
Climbing (best angle/rate)
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 2 Airwork
Straight and level
Slow flight
Steep turns (360 at 45 AOB)
Full clean stall and recovery
Approach to the stall with 10-30 AOB approach configuration/power
Handling using autopilot/flight director (may be conducted in section 3)
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 4 Arrivals and Landing Procedures
Aerodrome arrival procedures
Normal and flapless landing
Go-around from minimum height
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 3 Instrument Rating Re-Validation (if applicable)
To be flown in actual or simulated IMC)
Departure IFR
En-route IFR
Holding procedure
ILS to DH/A of 200 ft or to the minima (autopilot may be used to glideslope intercept)
Non precision approach to MDH/A and to the MAP
Exercises, rate 1 turns and unusual attitudes flown with simulated failure of compass & attitude indicator
Asymmetric approach and go-around (ME only)
Asymmetric approach and full stop landing (ME only)
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 5 Abnormal and Emergency Procedures
Simulated EFATO (SE only)
Simulated forced landing (SE only)
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 6 Simulated Asymmetric Flight (if applicable)
Simulated engine failure during take-off (at a safe height)
Asymmetric approach and go-around
Asymmetric approach and full-stop landing
ATC, radio procedures
 
Oral
Theoretical knowledge of type/class (SE only)
 
References:
LASORS
CAA Standards Documents 14 and 17

Proficiency Check (To re-validate or renew an existing rating on a licence)

Conducted by a Flight Examiner (FE) or Class Rating Examiner (CRE) who must hold IR re-validation privileges if the IR is to be re-validated

CAA Form LPC SPA (Licensing Proficiency Check Single-Pilot Aeroplane) shall be used to record the result of the check when re-validating or renewing an existing rating

An IR re-validation, if required, should be flown as part of this test but can be flown separately

On completion of a successful check the examiner will complete the LPC SPA, sign the candidates type/class re-validation certificate and IR certificate (if applicable). If the check is failed the examiner will issue a notification of failure and advise the mandatory retraining required. The candidate cannot exercise the privileges of the relevant rating(s) until a further Proficiency Check is passed

The examiner is required to notify the CAA of the result of each check by sending part one of the LPC SPA to the CAA PLD

The Proficiency Check is a one attempt check flight (no partial pass) however repeats of individual items can be allowed. The class/type rating and IR are assessed independently

Class/Type Rating - A failure of 2 or more sections requires all sections to be completed at the next attempt. A failure in one section only requires that section to be completed at the next attempt. Mandatory retraining will be required following any failure. The oral is not considered a section for assessment

IR - A failure of any item or items only requires that item or items to be completed at the next attempt. Mandatory retraining will be required following any failure

Section 1 Departure
Pre-flight including documentation, weather, mass & balance
Pre-start external/internal checks
Starting engine(s) normal and malfunctions
Taxiing
Power and Take-off checks
Climbing (best angle/rate)
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 2 Airwork
Straight and level
Slow flight
Steep turns (360 at 45 AOB)
Full clean stall and recovery
Approach to the stall with 10-30 AOB approach configuration/power
Handling using autopilot/flight director (may be conducted in section 3)
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 3A En-Route - VFR (for type or multi-engine class ratings unless exempt)
Flight plan, dead reckoning and map reading
Maintenance of altitude, heading and speed
Orientation, timing and revision of ETAs
Use of radio navigation aids (not mandatory)
Flight management (flight log, routine checks, icing, etc)
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 3B Instrument Rating Re-Validation (if applicable)
To be flown in actual or simulated IMC
Departure IFR
En-route IFR
Holding procedure
ILS to DH/A of 200 ft or to the minima (autopilot may be used to glideslope intercept)
Non precision approach to MDH/A and to the MAP
Exercises, rate 1 turns and unusual attitudes flown with simulated failure of compass & attitude indicator
Asymmetric approach and go-around (ME only)
Asymmetric approach and full stop landing (ME only)
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 4 Arrivals and Landing Procedures
Aerodrome arrival procedures
Normal and flapless landing
Go-around from minimum height
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 5 Abnormal and Emergency Procedures
Simulated EFATO (SE only)
Simulated forced landing (SE only)
ATC, radio procedures
 
Section 6 Simulated Asymmetric Flight (if applicable)
Simulated engine failure during take-off (at a safe height)
Asymmetric approach and go-around
Asymmetric approach and full-stop landing
ATC, radio procedures
 
Oral
Theoretical knowledge of type/class
 
References:
LASORS
CAA Standards Documents 14 and 17

Instrument Rating Test (IRT) (For initial issue of an IR)

It is normally conducted in a multi-engine aeroplane, other than a centre-line thrust aeroplane, as if it were being flown by a single flight crew member. It can be conducted in a single-engine aeroplane, centre-line thrust multi-engine aeroplane (see note 1) or in a multi-crew aeroplane (see note 2)

To be flown in actual or simulated IFR assuming icing conditions

Before a candidate can take the IRT a form FCL170A, signed by an authorized person to sign such forms, certifying not only the candidate has satisfactorily completed any training which may have been required, but is also, in the judgement of the person signing the form, fully ready to take and pass the test

The test may be flown with up to 5 hours less than the approved syllabus hours remaining

A pass in all sections must be achieved within 2 attempts otherwise a complete re-test is required. A failure of only one section will require only that section to be taken again. Failure of that section at the second attempt will result in a complete re-test. Further training may be required prior to attempting another complete test. A FCL170A is required for each complete re-test

Notes:

1. Consult CAA for approved training and testing requirements and privileges
2. Multi-crew IR normally confined to pilots of the UK Military who hold a current military procedural IR

Section 1 Departure

Pre-departure checks, drills and aircraft preparation for safe conduct of flight
Visual take-off
Instrument climb and departure following SID or ATC clearance

Section 2 General Handling

Basic handling to include:-
Straight and level flight (full and limited panel)
Turns onto specific headings (full and limited panel)
Recovery from unusual attitudes (full and limited panel)
Stalling (clean and approach configurations)

Section 3 En-route IFR Procedures

Entry, flight in and departure from airways in accordance with ATC clearance
Using tracking facilities as briefed by examiner

Section 4 Precision Approach

Approach to land procedure as published for facility or as directed by ATC to a specified DA (DH) from which a direct landing may be made
At DA (DH) missed approach to normal climb following published procedure or as directed by ATC to a position from which the next instrument approach may be started

Section 5 Non-Precision Approach

Standard entry into a holding pattern and completion of at least 1 pattern of the appropriate holding procedure including adjustments to leave holding pattern at the onwards clearance time or expected approach time if required by ATC
Approach to land procedure as published for facility requiring descent to a specified MDA (MDH)
Following descent to MDA (MDH), altitude/height should be maintained along the final approved track to a point where either:-
A landing may be safely made
      OR
The missed approach point is reached where upon the missed approach procedure should be carried out

Section 6 Simulated Asymmetric Flight (if applicable)

During missed approach the examiner will simulate failure of an engine
A safe flight path is to be established with simulated engine failure followed by identification of failed engine and completion of essential actions
Asymmetric circling approach or asymmetric visual circuit to go around
Asymmetric visual circuit to land

Instrument Rating (IR) Re-Validation (To re-validate an existing IR)

Conducted by an Instrument Rating Examiner (IRE) or Flight Examiner (FE) / Class Rating Examiner (CRE) who holds IR re-validation privileges

Holders of SPA types or classes should complete the IR re-validation items as part of a SPA type/class re-validation. Instrument rating privileges will run for 12 months and the re-validation test may be taken up to 3 months before its expiry without any loss of validity period. The new validity period will run for a further 12 months from the previous expiry date

Holders of both MPA and SPA types and/or classes should complete a SPA IR re-validation to maintain instrument rating privileges on SPA and a MPA IR to maintain instrument rating privileges on MPA. They will no longer be able to rely on a MPA IR to cover SPA

Holders of more than one SPA type or class rating will be required to complete an IR re-validation on only one of the types or classes held. IR re-validation will normally be completed on the most complex type or class held. An IR on a multi-engine SPA type/class will extend also to single-engine aeroplanes. An IR on single-engine SPA is only valid for single-engine SPA. A multi-engine centre-line thrust aeroplane shall be considered a single-engine aeroplane for the purpose of an aeroplane IR

Note: Holders of the SE piston (land) class rating may re-validate by Proficiency Check or experience however the IR (if held) can only be re-validated by Proficiency Check

Section 3B Instrument Rating Re-Validation
To be flown in actual or simulated IMC
Departure IFR
En-route IFR
Holding procedure
ILS to DH/A of 200 ft or to the minima (autopilot may be used to glideslope intercept)
Non precision approach to MDH/A and to the MAP
Exercises, Rate 1 turns and unusual attitudes flown with simulated failure of compass & attitude indicator
Asymmetric approach and go-around (ME only)
Asymmetric approach and full stop landing (ME only)
ATC, radio procedures
 
References:
LASORS
CAA Standards Documents 14 and 17