Flag of Andorra

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For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.


Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates:

42 30 N, 1 30 E


total: 468 sq km
land: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Land boundaries:

total: 120.3 km
border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)


temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers


rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources:

hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:

arable land: 2.13%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.87% (2005)

Natural hazards:


Environment - current issues:

deforestatiand solid waste disposal

Geography - note:

landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees


71,201 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 14.7% (male 5,456/female 4,994)
15-64 years: 71.4% (male 26,632/female 24,172)
65 years and over: 14% (male 4,918/female 5,029) (2006 est.)

Median age:

total: 40.9 years
male: 41.2 years
female: 40.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.89% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:

8.71 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:

6.25 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:

6.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 4.04 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 83.51 years
male: 80.61 years
female: 86.61 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.3 children born/woman (2006 est.)


noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups:

Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)


Roman Catholic (predominant)


Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Country name:

conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form: Andorra

Government type:

parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives


Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions:

7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria


1278 (formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)

National holiday:

Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)


Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991, approved by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 4 May 1993

Legal system:

based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Legislative branch:

unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven parishes; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held March-April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 41.2%, PS 38.1%, CDA-S21 11%, other 9.7%; seats by party - PLA 14, PS 12, CDA-S21 2

Judicial branch:

Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Economy - overview:

Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for more than 80% of GDP. An estimated 11.6 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its partial "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$1.84 billion (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:

4% (2004 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$24,000 (2004)

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Labour force:

48,740 (2004)

Labour force - by occupation:

agriculture: 0.34%
industry: 19.63%
services: 80.03% (2004)

Unemployment rate:

0% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

3.4% (2004)


revenues: $373.5 million
expenditures: $373.5 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2004)

Agriculture - products:

small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep


tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking

Electricity - imports:

NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower


$145 million f.o.b. (2004)

Exports - commodities:

tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners:

Spain 58%, France 34% (2004)


$1.077 billion (1998)

Imports - commodities:

consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners:

Spain 51.5%, France 22.3%, US 0.3% (2004)

Economic aid - recipient:


Currency (code):

euro (EUR)

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Telephones - main lines in use:

35,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular:

51,900 (2003)

Telephone system:

general assessment: NA
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:

0 (1997)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

7,058 (2005)

Internet users:

11,000 (2004)


none (2005)


total: 269 km
paved: 198 km
unpaved: 71 km

Military branches:

no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra

Military - note:

defence is the responsibility of France and Spain