Flag of Luxembourg

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Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.


Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates:

49 45 N, 6 10 E


total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Land boundaries:

total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)


modified continental with mild winters, cool summers


mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m

Natural resources:

iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

Land use:

arable land: 23.94%
permanent crops: 0.39%
other: 75.67% (includes Belgium) (2005)

Environment - current issues:

air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland

Geography - note:

landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world


474,413 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 18.9% (male 46,118/female 43,356)
15-64 years: 66.5% (male 159,498/female 156,075)
65 years and over: 14.6% (male 28,027/female 41,339) (2006 est.)

Median age:

total: 38.7 years
male: 37.7 years
female: 39.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.23% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:

11.94 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:

8.41 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:

8.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 4.74 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.73 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 78.89 years
male: 75.6 years
female: 82.38 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.78 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.2% (2001 est.)

people living with HIV/AIDS:

less than 500 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

less than 100 (2003 est.)


noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic groups:

Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kosovo) and European (guest and resident workers)


87% Roman Catholic, 13% Protestants, Jews, and Muslims (2000)


Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)

Country name:

conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg

Government type:

constitutional monarchy



Administrative divisions:

3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg


1839 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday:

National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June


17 October 1868; occasional revisions

Legal system:

based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Legislative branch:

unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 13 June 2004 (next to be held by June 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 36.1%, LSAP 23.4%, DP 16.1%, Green Party 11.6%, ADR 10%; seats by party - CSV 24, LSAP 14, DP 10, Green Party 7, ADR 5
note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister

Judicial branch:

judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch

Economy - overview:

This stable, high-income economy - benefiting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - features solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 28% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign-owned and have extensive foreign dealings. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for more than 30% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, has suffered from the global economic slump, the country enjoys an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks first in the world.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$29.43 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):

$31.96 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

3.5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$55,600 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 1%
industry: 13%
services: 86% (2005 est.)

Labor force:

316,500 of whom 121,600 are foreign cross-border workers commuting primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 1%
industry: 13%
services: 86% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:

4.9% (2005 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

3.6% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):

19.7% of GDP (2005 est.)


revenues: $9.195 billion
expenditures: $9.573 billion; including capital expenditures of $975.5 million (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:

wine, grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy products, livestock products


banking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminium, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:

4.4% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:

3.203 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Electricity - consumption:

6.14 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Electricity - exports:

2.346 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Electricity - imports:

5.287 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:

55,700 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:

634 bbl/day (2001)

Oil - imports:

50,700 bbl/day (2001)

Natural gas - consumption:

1.205 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - imports:

867 million cu m (2001 est.)


$13.39 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass

Exports - partners:

Germany 22.2%, France 19.8%, Belgium 10%, UK 8.5%, Italy 7.3%, Spain 6%, Netherlands 4.3% (2004)


$18.74 billion c.i.f. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:

minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods

Imports - partners:

Belgium 29.8%, Germany 22.6%, China 12.6%, France 12%, Netherlands 4.2% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$173.5 million (2005 est.)

Economic aid - donor:

ODA, $235.59 million (2004)

Currency (code):

euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Telephones - main lines in use:

360,100 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:

539,000 (2003)

Telephone system:

general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable
international: country code - 352; 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)

Television broadcast stations:

5 (1999)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

70,465 (2005)

Internet users:

270,800 (2005)


2 (2005)

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2005)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2005)


1 (2005)


gas 155 km (2004)


total: 274 km
standard gauge: 274 km 1.435-m gauge (242 km electrified) (2004)


total: 5,210 km
paved: 5,210 km (including 147 km of expressways) (2002)


37 km (on Moselle River) (2003)

Merchant marine:

total: 41 ships (1000 GRT or over) 509,517 GRT/517,644 DWT
by type: chemical tanker 15, container 6, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 11
foreign-owned: 41 (Belgium 15, Finland 3, France 9, Germany 8, Netherlands 3, US 3) (2005)

Ports and terminals:


Military branches: