Flag of Monaco


Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.


Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates:

43 44 N, 7 24 E


total: 1.95 sq km
land: 1.95 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Land boundaries:

total: 4.4 km
border countries: France 4.4 km


4.1 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm


Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers


hilly, rugged, rocky

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources:


Land use:

arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (urban area) (2005)

Geography - note:

second-smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban


32,543 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 15.2% (male 2,539/female 2,417)
15-64 years: 62.1% (male 9,959/female 10,266)
65 years and over: 22.6% (male 3,015/female 4,347) (2006 est.)

Median age:

total: 45.4 years
male: 43.3 years
female: 47.3 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.4% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:

9.19 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:

12.91 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:

7.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 5.35 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.19 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 79.69 years
male: 75.85 years
female: 83.74 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.76 children born/woman (2006 est.)


noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups:

French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%


Roman Catholic 90%


French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

Country name:

conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form: Monaco

Government type:

constitutional monarchy



Administrative divisions:

none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are four quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo


 1419 (beginning of the rule by the House of Grimaldi)

National holiday:

National Day (Prince of Monaco Holiday), 19 November


17 December 1962

Legal system:

based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members elected by list majority system, 8 by proportional representation; to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 February 2003 (next to be held February 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - UNAM 21, UND 3

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)

Economy - overview:

Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. In 2001, a major construction project extended the pier used by cruise ships in the main harbor. The principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$870 million
note: Monaco does not publish national income figures; the estimates are extremely rough (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

0.9% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$27,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 17%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Labor force:

30,540 (January 1994)

Unemployment rate:

22% (1999)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.9% (2000)


revenues: $518 million
expenditures: $531 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (1995)

Agriculture - products:



tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

Electricity - imports:

NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by France


note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France


note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Debt - external:

$18 billion (2000 est.)

Currency (code):

euro (EUR)

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Telephones - main lines in use:

33,700 (2002)

Telephones - mobile cellular:

19,300 (2002)

Telephone system:

general assessment: modern automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 1, FM NA, shortwave 8 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:

5 (1998)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

716 (2005)

Internet users:

16,000 (2002)


none; note - linked to the airport at Nice, France by helicopter service (2005)


1 (shuttle service between the international airport at Nice, France, and Monaco's heliport at Fontvieille) (2005)


total: 50 km
paved: 50 km (1999)

Merchant marine:

registered in other countries: 81 (The Bahamas 17, Barbados 1, Georgia 12, Hong Kong 1, Isle of Man 1, Italy 6, Liberia 11, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 8, Norway 3, Panama 9, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Switzerland 2, Turkey 1, unknown 1) (2005)

Ports and terminals:


Military - note:

defense is the responsibility of France; the Palace Guard performs ceremonial duties (2003)