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The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.


Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia

Geographic coordinates:

46 07 N, 14 49 E


total: 20,273 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km

Land boundaries:

total: 1,334 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Italy 232 km, Hungary 102 km


46.6 km


Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east


a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

Natural resources:

lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver, hydropower, forests

Land use:

arable land: 8.53%
permanent crops: 1.43%
other: 90.04% (2005)

Irrigated land:

30 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:

flooding and earthquakes

Environment - current issues:

Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain

Geography - note:

despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes


2,010,347 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 13.8% (male 143,079/female 135,050)
15-64 years: 70.5% (male 714,393/female 702,950)
65 years and over: 15.7% (male 121,280/female 193,595) (2006 est.)

Median age:

total: 40.6 years
male: 39 years
female: 42.2 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.05% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:

8.98 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:

10.31 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:

0.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 76.33 years
male: 72.63 years
female: 80.29 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.25 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

people living with HIV/AIDS:

280 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

less than 100 (2003 est.)


noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups:

Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)


Catholic 57.8%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 2.4%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)


Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census)


definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6%

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia

Government type:

parliamentary democratic republic



Administrative divisions:

182 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine , singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik-Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos-Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola-Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Koper-Capodistria*, Kostel, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava-Lendva, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran-Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogasovci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveta Ana, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zuzemberk, Zrece
note: there may be 45 more municipalities


25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday:

Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)


adopted 23 December 1991

Legal system:

based on civil law system


18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Legislative branch:

bicameral Parliament consisting of a National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 40 are directly elected and 50 are selected on a proportional basis; note - the numbers of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; this is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws, ask to review any National Assembly decisions, and call national referenda; members - representing social, economic, professional, and local interests - are indirectly elected to five-year terms by an electoral college)
elections: National Assembly - last held 3 October 2004 (next to be held October 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - SDS 29.1%, LDS 22.8%, ZLSD 10.2%, NSi 9%, SLS 6.8%, SNS 6.3%, DeSUS 4.1%, other 11.7%; seats by party - SDS 29, LDS 23, ZLSD 10, NSi 9, SLS 7, SNS 6, DeSUS 4, Hungarian and Italian minorities 1 each

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)

Economy - overview:

With its small transition economy and population of approximately two million, Slovenia is a model of economic success and stability for its neighbors in the former Yugoslavia. The country, which joined the EU in 2004, has excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and an excellent central location. It enjoys a GDP per capita substantially higher than any of the other transitioning economies of Central Europe. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. Slovenia plans to adopt the euro by 2007 and has met the EU's Maastricht criteria for inflation. Despite its economic success, Slovenia faces growing challenges. Much of the economy remains in state hands and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU on a per capita basis. Taxes are relatively high, the labor market is often seen as inflexible, and legacy industries are losing sales to more competitive firms in China, India, and elsewhere. The current center-right government, elected in October 2004, has pledged to accelerate privatization of a number of large state holdings and is interested in increasing FDI in Slovenia. In late 2005, the government's new Committee for Economic Reforms was elevated to cabinet-level status. The Committee's program includes plans for lowering the tax burden, privatizing state-controlled firms, improving the flexibility of the labor market, and increasing the government's efficiency.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$42.26 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):

$34.91 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

4% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$21,000 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 36.9%
services: 60.3% (2005 est.)

Labor force:

920,000 (2005 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 6%
industry: 40%
services: 54% (2002)

Unemployment rate:

9.8% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 23% (1998)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

28.4 (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.4% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):

24.8% of GDP (2005 est.)


revenues: $16.02 billion
expenditures: $16.73 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)

Public debt:

29.9% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:

potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry


ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Industrial production growth rate:

2.9% (2005 est.)

Electricity - production:

13.23 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - consumption:

12.47 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:

5.811 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:

5.975 billion kWh (2003)

Oil - production:

11.05 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - consumption:

52,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:

1.1 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - imports:

1.04 billion cu m (2001 est.)

Current account balance:

-$202 million (2005 est.)


$18.53 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:

manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food

Exports - partners:

Germany 18.1%, Italy 12.5%, Austria 11.4%, France 7.4%, Croatia 7.3%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.8% (2004)


$19.62 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food

Imports - partners:

Germany 19.6%, Italy 18.2%, Austria 14.7%, France 10% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$8.805 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:

$22.91 billion (30 September 2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:

ODA, $62 million (2000 est.)

Currency (code):

tolar (SIT)

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Telephones - main lines in use:

812,300 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:

1,739,100 (2003)

Telephone system:

general assessment: NA
domestic: 100% digital (2000)
international: country code - 386

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 17, FM 160, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:

48 (2001)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

59,090 (2005)

Internet users:

950,000 (2005)


14 (2005)

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2005)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2005)


gas 2,526 km; oil 11 km (2004)


total: 1,201 km
standard gauge: 1,201 km 1.435-m gauge (499 km electrified) (2004)


total: 38,400 km
paved: 38,400 km (including 417 km of expressways) (2003)

Merchant marine:

registered in other countries: 25 (Antigua and Barbuda 6, The Bahamas 1, Cyprus 4, Georgia 1, Liberia 2, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Singapore 1) (2005)

Ports and terminals:


Military branches:

Slovenian Army (includes Air and Naval Forces)

Disputes - international:

the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains unratified and in dispute; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia must implement the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia

Illicit drugs:

minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals