Serbia and Montenegro

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The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941 was resisted by various paramilitary bands that fought each other as well as the invaders. The group headed by Josip TITO took full control of Yugoslavia upon German expulsion in 1945. Although Communist, his new government and its successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In the early 1990s, post-TITO Yugoslavia began to unravel along ethnic lines: Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina were recognized as independent states in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (FRY) in April 1992 and, under President Slobodan MILOSEVIC, Serbia led various military intervention efforts to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions led to Yugoslavia being ousted from the UN in 1992, but Serbia continued its campaign until signing the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. In 1998-99, massive expulsions by FRY forces and Serb paramilitaries of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo provoked an international response, including the NATO bombing of Belgrade and the stationing of a NATO-led force (KFOR), in Kosovo. Federal elections in the fall of 2000, brought about the ouster of MILOSEVIC and installed Vojislav KOSTUNICA as president. The arrest of MILOSEVIC in 2001 allowed for his subsequent transfer to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague to be tried for crimes against humanity. In 2001, the country's suspension from the UN was lifted, and it was once more accepted into UN organizations under the name of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Kosovo has been governed by the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) since June 1999, under the authority of UN Security Council Resolution 1244, pending a determination by the international community of its future status. In 2002, the Serbian and Montenegrin components of Yugoslavia began negotiations to forge a looser relationship. In February 2003 lawmakers restructured the country into a loose federation of two republics called Serbia and Montenegro. The Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro includes a provision that allows either republic to hold a referendum after three years that would allow for their independence from the state union. In 2003 Svetozar MAROVIC was elected president of Serbia and Montenegro.


Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geographic coordinates:

44 00 N, 21 00 E


total: 102,350 sq km
land: 102,136 sq km
water: 214 sq km

Land boundaries:

total: 2,246 km
border countries: Albania 287 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km


199 km


in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland


extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Daravica 2,656 m

Natural resources:

oil, gas, coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, hydropower, arable land

Land use:

arable land: 33.18%
permanent crops: 3.2%
other: 63.62% (2005)

Irrigated land:

320 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:

pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

Geography - note:

controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast


10,832,545 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 17.9% (male 1,003,313/female 932,885)
15-64 years: 67% (male 3,618,870/female 3,638,397)
65 years and over: 15.1% (male 702,618/female 936,462) (2006 est.)

Median age:

total: 37 years
male: 35.5 years
female: 38.5 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.03% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:

12.11 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:

10.55 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:

-1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 12.52 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.13 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 74.95 years
male: 72.37 years
female: 77.75 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.68 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

10,000 (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

less than 100 (2003 est.)


noun: Serb(s); Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian; Montenegrin

Ethnic groups:

Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 12.6% (1991)


Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%


Serbian 95%, Albanian 5%


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.9%
female: 94.1% (2002 est.)

Country name:

conventional long form: Serbia and Montenegro
conventional short form: none
local long form: Srbija i Crna Gora
local short form: none
former: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
abbreviation: SCG

Government type:




Administrative divisions:

2 republics (republike, singular - republika); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces (autonomn pokrajine, singular - autonomna pokrajina)(both in the republic of Serbia)* ; Kosovo* (temporarily under UN administration, per UN Security Council Resolution 1244), Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*


27 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or FRY - now Serbia and Montenegro - formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY)

National holiday:

National Day, 27 April


4 February 2003

Legal system:

based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Legislative branch:

unicameral Parliament (126 seats - 91 Serbian, 35 Montenegrin - filled by nominees of the two state parliaments for the first two years, after which the Constitutional Charter calls for direct elections
elections: last held 25 February 2003 (next to be held 2006 in Montenegro and 2007 in Serbia)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Serbian parties: SRS 30, DSS 20, DS 13, G17 Plus 12, SPO-NS 8, SPS 8; Montenegrin parties: DPS 15, SNP 9, SDP 4, DSS 3, NS 2, LSCG 2

Judicial branch:

The Court of Serbia and Montenegro; judges are elected by the Serbia and Montenegro Parliament for six-year terms
note: since the promulgation of the 2003 Constitution, the Federal Court has constitutional and administrative functions; it has an equal number of judges from each republic

Economy - overview:

MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, a down-sized Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. An agreement rescheduling the country's $4.5 billion Paris Club government debts was concluded in November 2001 - it wrote off 66% of the debt - and the London Club of private creditors forgave $1.7 billion of debt, just over half the total owed, in July 2004. The smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain its own central bank, uses the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collects customs tariffs, and manages its own budget. Kosovo's economy continues to transition to a market-based system, and is largely dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. The euro and the Yugoslav dinar are both accepted currencies in Kosovo. While maintaining ultimate oversight, UNMIK continues to work with the EU and Kosovo's local provisional government to accelerate economic growth, lower unemployment, and attract foreign investment to help Kosovo integrate into regional economic structures. The complexity of Serbia and Montenegro political relationships, slow progress in privatization, legal uncertainty over property rights, scarcity of foreign-investment, and a substantial foreign trade deficit are holding back the economy. Arrangements with the IMF, especially requirements for fiscal discipline, are an important element in policy formation. Severe unemployment remains a key political and economic problem for this entire region.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$28.7 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):

$25.07 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$2,700 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 16.6%
industry: 25.5%
services: 57.9% (2005 est.)

Labor force:

3.22 million (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:

31.6%; note - unemployment is approximately 50% in Kosovo (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line:

30% (1999 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

15.5% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):

14.2% of GDP (2005 est.)


revenues: $11.45 billion
expenditures: $11.12 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)

Public debt:

53.1% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:

cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats


machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate:

1.7% (2002 est.)

Electricity - production:

36.04 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - consumption:

36.62 billion kWh (2003)

Electricity - exports:

400 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:

3.5 billion kWh (2003)

Oil - production:

14,660 bbl/day (2003)

Oil - consumption:

85,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:

38.75 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas - production:

650 million cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:

2.55 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:

48.14 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Current account balance:

-$2.451 billion (2005 est.)


$5.485 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:

manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials

Exports - partners:

Italy 28.9%, Germany 16.6%, Greece 7.1%, Austria 7%, France 4.9%, Slovenia 4.1% (2004)


$11.94 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials

Imports - partners:

Germany 18.5%, Italy 16.4%, Austria 8.3%, Slovenia 6.7%, Bulgaria 4.7%, France 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$5.35 billion (2005 est.)

Debt - external:

$15.43 billion (2005 est.)

Economic aid - recipient:

$2 billion pledged in 2001 (disbursements to follow for several years)

Currency (code):

new Yugoslav dinar (YUM); note - in Montenegro the euro is legal tender; in Kosovo both the euro and the Yugoslav dinar are legal

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Telephones - main lines in use:

2,685,400 (2004)

Telephones - mobile cellular:

4,729,600 (2004)

Telephone system:

general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: country code - 381; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 113, FM 194, shortwave 2 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:

more than 771 (including 86 strong stations and 685 low-power stations, plus 20 repeaters in the principal networks; also numerous local or private stations in Serbia and Vojvodina) (1997)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

22,046 (2005)

Internet users:

1.2 million (2005)


44 (2005)

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 19
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2005)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 13 (2005)


4 (2005)


gas 3,177 km; oil 393 km (2004)


total: 4,380 km
standard gauge: 4,380 km 1.435-m gauge (1,364 km electrified) (2004)


total: 45,290 km
paved: 28,261 km
unpaved: 17,029 km (2002)


587 km (2002)

Merchant marine:

total: 5
by type: cargo 4, chemical tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Finland 1)
registered in other countries: 4 (The Bahamas 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2) (2005)

Ports and terminals:


Military branches:

Serbian and Montenegrin Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije i Crne Gore, VSCG): Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces (2005)

Disputes - international:

Kosovo remains unresolved and administered by several thousand peacekeepers from the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) since 1999, with Kosovar Albanians overwhelmingly supporting and Serbian officials opposing Kosovo independence; the international community had agreed to begin a process to determine final status but contingency of solidifying multi-ethnic democracy in Kosovo has not been satisfied; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo refuse demarcation of the boundary with Macedonia in accordance with the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement; Serbia and Montenegro have delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 95,297 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 180,117 (Croatia)
IDPs: 225,000 - 251,000 (mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999) (2005)

Illicit drugs:

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering