Flag of Togo

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French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, continued to rule well into the 21st century. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government continued to be dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967. Togo has come under fire from international organizations for human rights abuses and is plagued by political unrest. While most bilateral and multilateral aid to Togo remains frozen, the EU initiated a partial resumption of cooperation and development aid to Togo in late 2004 based upon commitments by Togo to expand opportunities for political opposition and liberalize portions of the economy. Upon his death in February 2005, President EYADEMA was succeeded by his son Faure GNASSINGBE. The succession, supported by the military and in contravention of the nation's constitution, was challenged by popular protest and a threat of sanctions from regional leaders. GNASSINGBE succumbed to pressure and agreed to hold elections in late April 2005 which legitimized his succession.


Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana

Geographic coordinates:

8 00 N, 1 10 E


total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km

Land boundaries:

total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km


56 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north


gently rolling savannah in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m

Natural resources:

phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land

Land use:

arable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 2.11%
other: 53.69% (2005)

Irrigated land:

70 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:

hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:

deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas

Geography - note:

the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 42.3% (male 1,177,141/female 1,169,321)
15-64 years: 55.1% (male 1,485,621/female 1,570,117)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 59,870/female 86,632) (2006 est.)

Median age:

total: 18.3 years
male: 17.8 years
female: 18.7 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate:

2.72% (2006 est.)

Birth rate:

37.01 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate:

9.83 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 60.63 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 68.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 52.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 57.42 years
male: 55.41 years
female: 59.49 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate:

4.96 children born/woman (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

4.1% (2003 est.)

people living with HIV/AIDS:

110,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

10,000 (2003 est.)

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)


noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese

Ethnic groups:

native African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%


indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 29%, Muslim 20%


French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.9%
male: 75.4%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)

Country name:

conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland

Government type:

republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule



Administrative divisions:

5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes


27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 27 April (1960)


multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992, adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992

Legal system:

French-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


NA years of age; universal adult

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 27 October 2002 (next to be held NA 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPT 72, RSDD 3, UDPS 2, Juvento 2, MOCEP 1, independents 1
note: two opposition parties boycotted the election, the Union of the Forces for Change and the Action Committee for Renewal

Judicial branch:

Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Economy - overview:

This small, sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings, with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow-through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a PRGF that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$8.948 billion (2005 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):

$2.019 billion (2005 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

2.5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$1,700 (2005 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 39.5%
industry: 20.4%
services: 40.1% (2003 est.)

Labor force:

1.74 million (1996)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line:

32% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

5.5% (2005 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):

21.9% of GDP (2005 est.)


revenues: $251.3 million
expenditures: $292.9 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)

Agriculture - products:

coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish


phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Electricity - production:

165.9 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - consumption:

654.3 million kWh (2003)

Electricity - imports:

500 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2003)

Oil - consumption:

8,500 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Current account balance:

-$223 million (2005 est.)


$768 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities:

reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa

Exports - partners:

Burkina Faso 16.4%, Ghana 15.1%, Benin 9.4%, Mali 7.6%, China 7.5%, India 5.6% (2004)


$1.047 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products

Imports - partners:

China 24.5%, India 12.7%, France 11%, Cote d'Ivoire 6.4% (2004)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$331 million (2005 est.)

Debt - external:

$2 billion (2005)

Economic aid - recipient:

ODA, $80 million (2000 est.)

Currency (code):

Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Telephones - main lines in use:

60,600 (2003)

Telephones - mobile cellular:

220,000 (2003)

Telephone system:

general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; cellular system has capacity of 10,000 telephones
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Symphonie

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:

3 (plus two repeaters) (1997)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

205 (2005)

Internet users:

221,000 (2005)


9 (2005)

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2005)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2005)


total: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)


total: 7,520 km
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (1999)


50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2005)

Merchant marine:

total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,918 GRT/3,852 DWT
by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (2005)

Ports and terminals:

Kpeme, Lome

Military branches:

Togolese Armed Forces (FAT): Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie (2005)

Disputes - international:

in 2001 Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary

Illicit drugs:

transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem