- the acceleration force of gravity, normally 1g on earth.
Zero g (0g) is weightlessness, as experienced by orbiting astronauts.
g is expressed as positive (+) and negative (-) values. During a
normal loop a pilot experiences positive g, tending to force him down
in his seat. In an outside loop, with the pilot's head on the outside
of the vertical circle, negative g forces him up against his straps.
Aircraft structural load limits are expressed in positive and negative
values, the positive limit usually greater than negative, except in
specialist aerobatic types.
g - loc-g-induced loss of consciousness. Pilot blackouts caused
by excessive g or by too-rapid onset of g forces. Experienced mostly
by pilots of high performance military jets and competition aerobatic
aircraft, has led to fatal crashes.
G/S - groundspeed. The speed an aircraft makes over the ground,
a product of its airspeed and wind speed.
GA - general aviation, all flying other than airlines and the
GAAC - General Aviation Awareness Campaign.
GAFOR - General Aviation Visual Flight Forecast. Met briefing
service in operation in France, Germany, the Netherlands and some
other European countries.
gall imp/U.S. - gallons, imperial or USA. One imp gall = 1.201
GAMA - General Aviation Manufacturers Association, an American
GAMTA - General Aviation Manufacturers & Traders Association,
GAPAN - Guild of Air Pilots and Air Navigators.
GASIL - General Aviation Safety Information Leaflet. Monthly
safety and accident prevention bulletin for pilots and engineers
published by the CAA.
GCA - ground controlled approach. A landing approach in which a
ground controller gives verbal guidance in azimuth and elevation to a
pilot using precision approach radar (PAR) to monitor the aircraft's
approach path. Still used by the military, but defunct in civil
GFT - General Flying Test, taken by student pilots to qualify
for the PPL, and also by candidates for the BCPL and CPL. Also NFT,
navigation flight test, which is part of the practical examination for
Glonass - Russian equivalent of GPS/Navstar satellite
glove - non movable part of a variable geometry wing.
gnd - ground
GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite Systems.
go - around to climb away from a runway after making an
approach, either to make a further attempt at landing or to divert to
an alternate airport (formerly 'overshoot').
Goxio - VHF direction finding (France)
GP - glidepath
gph - gallons per hour, an expression of fuel consumption or
fuel flow (FF) in either imperial or U.S. gallons. Usually lb/hr for
GPS - Global Positioning System (Navstar). A U.S. developed
satellite based high precision navigation system, intended primarily
for military use but now in widespread use by commercial and private
operators, though with reduced accuracy compared with military
GPWS - ground proximity warning system. A radar based flight
deck system to give pilots audible warning by means of horns, hooters,
taped or synthetic voices of terrain close beneath an aircraft's
GRADU - gradual (term used in Met reports).
GRP - glass fibre reinforced plastic; also CFRP, carbon fibre
reinforced plastic. Composite materials seeing increasing use in
entire airframes for GA aircraft (e.g. Beech Starship) and for
components for helicopters, airliners and military aircraft.
GS - glide slope. The vertical guidance part of an instrument
landing system which establishes a safe glidepath (usually three
degrees) to a runway